Karl Heinrich Marx


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Karl Heinrich Marx (5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosophereconomist,sociologisthistorianjournalist, and revolutionary socialist. His ideas played a significant role in the development of social science and the socialist political movement. He published various books during his lifetime, with the most notable being The Communist Manifesto(1848) and Capital (1867–1894); some of his works were co-written with his friend and fellow German revolutionary socialist, Friedrich Engels.

Born into a wealthy middle class family in Trier, formerly in Prussian Rhineland now called Rhineland-Palatinate, Marx studied at both the University of Bonn and the University of Berlin, where he became interested in the philosophical ideas of the Young Hegelians.

Stammbaum von Karl Marx - Der Orden Bne Briss, Mitteilungen der Großloge für Deutschland VIII U.C.B.B. (= United Order of B'nai B'rith). Sammelbl. jüd. Wiss 167.

Stammbaum von Karl Marx - Der Orden Bne Briss, Mitteilungen der Großloge für Deutschland VIII U.C.B.B. (= United Order of B'nai B'rith). Sammelbl. jüd. Wiss 167.

In 1836, he became engaged to Jenny von Westphalen, marrying her in 1843. After his studies, he wrote for a radical newspaper in Cologne, and began to work out his theory of dialectical materialism. Moving to Paris in 1843, he began writing for other radical newspapers. He met Engels in Paris, and the two men worked together on a series of books. Exiled to Brussels, he became a leading figure of the Communist League, before moving back to Cologne, where he founded his own newspaper. In 1849 he was exiled again and moved to London together with his wife and children. In London, where the family was reduced to poverty, Marx continued writing and formulating his theories about the nature of society and how he believed it could be improved, as well as campaigning for socialism and becoming a significant figure in the International Workingmen’s Association.

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Eduard Bernstein


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Eduard Bernstein stammte aus einer kleinbürgerlichen Familie. Seine Eltern gehörten der jüdischen Reformgemeinde an, sein Vater war Lokomotivführer. Bernstein besuchte – trotz Geldmangels der Familie – das Gymnasium, musste es aber 1866 mit 16 Jahren aus finanziellen Gründen doch verlassen. Von 1866 bis 1878 arbeitete er als Bankkaufmann. 1872 stieß er zu den „Eisenachern“ und trat der Sozialdemokratischen Arbeiterpartei (SDAP) bei.

Den Begriff „Verelendungstheorie“ haben Marx und Engels nicht verwendet; den Namen hat vermutlich erst Eduard Bernstein eingeführt

Er bereitete zusammen mit August Bebel und Wilhelm Liebknecht den Einigungsparteitag der SDAP mit dem Allgemeinen Deutschen Arbeiterverein von 1875 in Gotha vor. Die auf dem Parteitag mit der Konzeption des Gothaer Programms vereinigte Partei wurde als Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei (SAP) konstituiert.
1877, nach dem Tod seiner Mutter, trat Bernstein aus der jüdischen Gemeinde aus. Gleichwohl setzte er sich für seine jüdischen Glaubengenossen ein. Weiterlesen