Starbucks Corporation – Starbucks Coffee

Starbucks Chairman Howard Shultz talks to the ...

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Die Starbucks Corp. (NASDAQ: SBUX) ist ein auf Kaffeeprodukte spezialisiertes und international tätiges Einzelhandelsunternehmen mit Hauptgeschäftssitz in Seattle in den USA, das Kaffeebohnen kauft, röstet und über die konzerneigenen und lizenzierten Kaffeehäuser vertreibt.

1971 eröffneten die Studienfreunde Gerald Baldwin, Gordon Bowker und Zev Siegl aus San Francisco im alten Hafen Seattles, am Pike Place 1912 das Kaffee-, Tee- und Gewürzgeschäft „Starbucks Coffee, Tea and Spice“.

Den Namen wählten sie in Anlehnung an den Steuermann Starbuck aus Herman Melvilles Roman Moby Dick.

is 1981 wurden weitere drei Filialen in Seattle eröffnet. In diesem Jahr fielen dem New Yorker Juden Howard Schultz, damaliger Vizepräsident und Verkaufsleiter der Haushaltsgerätefirma Hammarplast, überdurchschnittlich viele Bestellungen von hochqualitativen Kaffeemaschinen auf, die von der kleinen Firma Starbucks an der Westküste eingingen.

Howard Schultz wollte der Sache auf den Grund gehen und suchte die Firma auf. Bis dahin kannte Howard Schultz nur das übliche gefriergetrocknete Kaffeepulver und dünnen Brühkaffee („regular“). In seiner Autobiografie äußerte Howard Schultz später seine Begeisterung über die Qualität des bei Starbucks verkauften Kaffees: „Es war, als hätte ich einen neuen Kontinent entdeckt.“ Spontan entwickelte Howard Schultz die Idee eines landesweiten Verkaufs von Spitzenkaffee und wollte von da an nur noch für Starbucks arbeiten. Jedoch bedurfte es mehrerer Anläufe, bis er die Eigentümer für sich gewinnen konnte.1982 gaben die Inhaber Schultz‘ Werben nach. Howard Schultz gab seine Stellung in New York auf und übernahm bei Starbucks die Leitung des Einzelhandels und der Vermarktung. Zunächst weitete Howard Schultz das Geschäft auf die Belieferung gehobener Restaurants und Espresso-Bars mit Kaffeebohnen aus. Der Besuch einer Verkaufsmesse in Mailand brachte ihn 1983 auf die Idee, neben Bohnen Kaffee auch als Getränk anzubieten. Seine Idee stieß erneut auf Widerstand. 1984 gestanden ihm die Inhaber jedoch zu, kleine Espresso-Bars in den Läden einzurichten. Das Kaffeebarkonzept erwies sich als erfolgreich, wenngleich eine weitere Expansion kategorisch abgelehnt wurde, da Baldwins, Bowkers und Siegls Liebhaberei immer Vorrang vor dem Geschäftlichen haben sollte. Das führte schließlich zum Bruch der Geschäftsbeziehung.

Howard Schultz kündigte bei Starbucks und eröffnete 1985 seine eigene Kaffeebar namens Il Giornale, wobei ihn seine früheren Arbeitgeber unterstützten. Weiterhin verfolgte Howard Schultz in Gesprächen mit rund 250 möglichen Investoren die Verwirklichung seiner Geschäftsidee und konnte am Ende 15 Partner überzeugen. Dadurch war Howard Schultz in der Lage, seinen früheren Arbeitgebern und Kaffee-Connaisseuren ein überzeugendes Übernahmeangebot zu machen. 1987 kaufte Howard Schultz Starbucks für 3,8 Millionen US$ und begann – mit elf Läden und hundert Angestellten – eine in der Geschichte der Gastronomie beispiellose Expansion.

1989 hatte Howard Schultz die Anzahl seiner Filialen auf 55 verfünffacht. Diese lagen noch vor allem an der Westküste und in PortlandOregon. 1992 erfolgte die Umwandlung in eine Aktiengesellschaft. Die Stammaktien werden seither am NASDAQ National Market unter dem Kürzel „SBUX“ gehandelt. Mit dem Geld des Börsengangs konnte das Filialnetz noch schneller ausgebaut werden. Starbucks war nun an 272 Standorten vertreten.

In einem öffentlich bekannt gewordenen Memo von Schultz an die oberste Führungsebene im Februar 2007 beklagte er, dass „die Romantik und das Schauspiel verschwunden sind“, die Läden hätten ihre Seele verloren. Die Vollmechanisierung des Brühprozesses, lange Warteschlangen und Sandwiches anstelle von Muffins trieben die Kunden von Starbucks zur Konkurrenz. Am 8. Januar kehrte Schultz daher als CEO zurück und leitete eine Sanierung und eine neue Markterschließungsstrategie ein.

Die ersten beiden Starbucks-Filialen in Deutschland wurden im Mai 2002 in Berlin eröffnet. Mittlerweile hat Starbucks 151 Filialen in Deutschland (Stand Juni 2011). Die Starbucks-Filialen in Deutschland sind keine Franchiseunternehmen. Sie werden alle direkt von der Starbucks Coffee Deutschland GmbH mit Sitz in Essen betrieben. Die meisten Filialen hat Berlin mit 19, gefolgt von Frankfurt mit 14 und Hamburg mit 13.

In Österreich ist die Kaffeehauskette mit 12 Filialen vertreten (Stand: Juni 2011), wobei sich 11 in Wien befinden und 1 Filiale am Flughafen Schwechat.

Seit 2001 ist Starbucks in der Schweiz vertreten. Mit 49 Filialen (Stand: Ende November 2011) hat die Schweiz weltweit die höchste Starbucks-Dichte. Von diesen entfallen alleine 20 Filialen auf die Stadt Zürich sowie jeweils 5 Filialen auf Basel und Genf. Die im März 2001 eröffnete Starbucks-Filiale am Zürcher Central war die erste Niederlassung des Konzerns in Kontinentaleuropa.

2007 war Starbucks in über 43 Ländern vertreten und erwirtschaftete mit über 172.000 Mitarbeitern in 14.400 eigenen und lizenzierten Kaffeehäusern weltweit einen Jahresumsatz von 9,4 Milliarden USD (2007).

Trotz stetig steigender Anzahl von Läden musste Starbucks am 15. November 2007 erstmals einen Rückgang der Kundenzahlen in den USA bekanntgeben.

Die Starbucks-Aktie startete im Juni 1992 mit 17 US$, erreichte am 5. Mai 2006 mit 39,63 US$ ihren bisherigen Höchststand und rutschte bis zum 2. Januar 2008 um 48 Prozent auf 19,31 US$ ab.

Zu den weltweit einheitlichen Produkten der Starbucks-Kette zählen in erster Linie Kaffeespezialitäten. Darüber hinaus besteht ein Angebot an Kaffeebohnen. Generell besteht der Starbucks-Kaffee aus dunkel gerösteten Arabica-Kaffeebohnen. Weiterhin vertreibt Starbucks mehrere Musik-CDs unter eigenem Label.

Starbucks bietet neben Eigenkreationen auch landläufig Bekanntes wie normalen Filterkaffee, Caffè LatteCappuccino oder Espresso an. Darüber hinaus gibt es noch zahlreiche Variationen dieser klassischen Kaffeegetränke, wie Caramel Macchiato, Caffé Mocha und White Caffé Mocha. Bekannt ist Starbucks darüber hinaus für eisvermischte Getränke (Frappuccino), bei denen eine Kaffee- („blended coffee“) oder Milchbasis („blended cream“) mit zerkleinertem Eis und verschiedenen Aromen zu einem Kaltgetränk verarbeitet wird. Fruchtsäfte wie Himbeer- und Mangosaft werden mit Tazo Tea und zerkleinertem Eis zu „blended juice drinks“ kombiniert. Zudem werden Gebäck, Kuchen und Sandwiches angeboten.

Nach Angaben von Starbucks werden die Getränke nach allgemeingültigen Standards hergestellt, die zum Ziel hätten, dass der Kaffee von New York bis Peking gleich schmecke. Auch werde das örtliche Leitungswasser gefiltert und Kuchen und Gebäck teilweise für die Zielmärkte direkt aus den USA bezogen. Um eine breite Kundenschicht anzusprechen, können die Gäste bei Starbucks zudem aus verschiedenen Milchsorten (wie Vollmilch, fettarme Milch, fettreduzierte Milch, laktosefreie Milch, Magermilch und Sojamilch) wählen, die bei der Zubereitung verwendet werden. So kann jeder sein Getränk genau so trinken, wie er es am liebsten mag, und darüber hinaus können beispielsweise auch Allergiker oder Veganer in den Genuss der Kaffee- und Teespezialitäten kommen.

Starbucks verwendet zunehmend auch ökologisch angebauten Kaffee und bietet das verbrauchte Kaffeemehl kostenlos als Dünger und Kompost an.

Zentral bei Neueröffnungen von Filialen ist die Wahl eines stark frequentierten Standortes (Flughäfen sowie Bahnhöfe oder Zentren großer Städte) sowie ein großflächiger Einstieg in nationale Märkte häufig in Kooperation mit nationalen Unternehmen wie zum Beispiel KarstadtQuelle in Deutschland. Nach einer erfolgreichen Positionierung am Markt trennt sich Starbucks häufig von den Kooperationsunternehmen, oft werden diese auch übernommen, so zum Beispiel durch die Seattle Coffee Company in Großbritannien oderSazabys in Japan. Die oft frei erfundenen Produktnamen sind zumeist Eigenkreationen in einer Mischung aus in erster Linie Englisch und Italienisch, teilweise fließen auch französische Begriffe mit ein. Einher damit geht die Bezeichnung der Angestellten als Baristas, eigentlich eine italienische Berufsbezeichnung für Bedienungspersonal, das Espresso zubereitet.

Starbucks‘ erstes Logo (1971 bis 1987)

Starbucks 1987 bis 1992

Logo von Starbucks 1992 bis 2010 – noch mit Firmenbezeichnung

Das Starbucks-Logo wurde aus Gründen der politischen Korrektheit über die Jahre geändert. Am Anfang war die Sirene noch barbusig. In der zweiten Version verdeckten dann Haare die Brüste, es war aber noch ein Bauchnabel zu sehen. In der Version ab 1992 ist auch dieser nicht mehr zu sehen. Seit 2011 wird die umlaufende Firmenbezeichnung weggelassen, die Sirene alleine bildet das Firmenlogo.

Ein Rechtsstreit zwischen äthiopischen Kaffeebauern und Starbucks belastete 2007 den Ruf von Starbucks als fairer Handelspartner. Zwar bezahlt Starbucks den Bauern einen überdurchschnittlich hohen Preis, doch die äthiopischen Bauern wollten durch einen juristischen Namensschutz der Anbauregion als Warenzeichen Sidamo mehr Kontrolle über den Vertrieb und damit auch einen höheren Preis erhalten.

Starbucks wollte jedoch kein Lizenzabkommen unterschreiben und veranlaßte über den Kaffeeverband National Coffee Association of USA (NCA) den Widerspruch des Namenschutzes. Eine enge Verbindung zur NCA besteht durch Dub Hay, Vizepräsident von Starbucks und zuständig für den weltweiten Einkauf, der gleichzeitig als Lobbyist für die NCA tätig ist. Die NCA hatte zunächst durch juristischen Einspruch erreicht, dass das Patentamt den äthiopischen Antrag abgelehnt hat. Als Folge des drohenden Ansehensverlustes hatte Starbucks im Juni 2007 die drei äthiopischen Kaffeesorten Sidamo, Harar und Yirgacheffe als Handelsmarken anerkannt und einen Lizenz-, Vertriebs- und Marketingvertrag unterzeichnet.

Starbucks gibt an, den Kaffee „fair“ einzukaufen und praktiziert durch das eigene Projekt „Coffee and Farmer Equity-Practices“ (C.A.F.E.) die Bezahlung eines über dem Markt liegenden Preises mit Einbeziehung qualitativer, wirtschaftlicher, ökologischer und sozialer Kriterien, erarbeitet durch Kaffeefarmer, Nachhaltigkeitsexperten und Mitarbeiter der „Conservation International“ (CI). Dadurch würden humanitäre Projekte unterstützt, etwa „CSR Projekte“ an Schulen der Fundraising Akademie gGmbH. Die Kaffeesorte Estima wird durch die unabhängige Organisationen Fair Trade zertifiziert.

Kritiker, wie Naomi Klein, Autorin von No Logo, werfen dem Unternehmen vor, einen Verdrängungswettbewerb zu Lasten lokaler Betriebe und der bei Starbucks beschäftigten Mitarbeiter auszufechten.

Die internationale Gewerkschaft IWW rief im August 2006 zum Boykott von Starbucks auf, nachdem vier ihrer Mitglieder, die der IWW Starbucks Workers Union angehörten, gekündigt worden waren. Bis zum Ende des Jahres 2006 erhöhte sich die Zahl der Gekündigten auf fünf IWW-Mitglieder.

Im April 2007 erhob die Nationale Behörde für Arbeitsbeziehungen der USA (National Labour Relations BoardNLRB) auf Betreiben der IWW Anklage gegen Starbucks in 30 Fällen. Es ging um angeblich gewerkschaftsfeindliche Praktiken, unfaire Maßnahmen gegen Angestellte und Kündigungen unter angeblich konstruierten Vorwänden. Der Prozess begann im August 2007 in New York und dauerte zu Beginn des Jahres 2008 an.

Im März 2008 wurde der Konzern verurteilt, ca. 100 Millionen Dollar einbehaltener Trinkgelder an Beschäftigte zurück zu zahlen. Eine Beschäftigte hatte seit 2004 eine Sammelklage gegen die Praxis geführt, Vorgesetzte in Starbucks-Shops an den Trinkgeldern ihrer Mitarbeiter zu beteiligen.

Der vor Gericht bisher nie widerlegte Autor Günter Wallraff schreibt 2009, nach „Recherchen hinter der In-Fassade der Kaffeehauskette Starbucks”, dort würden „menschenunwürdige Verhältnisse” herrschen.

In deutschen Filialen werden Betriebsräte gezielt nach Vorgaben und unter Druck der Geschäftsleitung gewählt. Diese angeblichen Arbeitnehmervertreter sind nach Auskunft der Gewerkschaft Nahrung-Genuss-Gaststätten nicht ihren Kollegen, sondern der Geschäftsleitung gegenüber loyal. Tatsächlich unabhängige Betriebsräte werden mit falschen Anschuldigungen und Abmahnungen drangsaliert und zur Aufgabe der Arbeitsstelle genötigt.

Tassen mit altem Starbucks-Logo

In Shrek 2 („Farbucks“) sowie in der Simpsons-Folge „Homer geht zur Marine“ wird die zügige Ausbreitung von Starbucks in der ganzen Welt parodiert, während in der Zeichentrickserie Family Guy Starbucks als Treffpunkt geltungssüchtiger Möchtegernschriftsteller dargestellt wird. In der Comic-Version von Futurama wird ebenfalls die rasche Expansion Starbucks parodiert, in einem Einkaufszentrum werden alle Läden zu Starbucks-Filialen gemacht, ähnlich auch in einer Episode von Little Britain. In der Fernsehserie Scrubs – Die Anfänger eröffnet im Sacred Heart Hospital ein Cafe namens „Coffebucks“ mit ähnlichem Firmenlogo und typischer Inneneinrichtung. In der Fernsehserie South Park (in der 17. Episode der 2 Staffel, „Böse Buben bringen Beistand“) geht es um Starbucks als Großkonzern, der kleinere Kaffeehäuser verdrängt. Im ComputerspielMonkey Island 4 kann der Spieler eine Starbucks-Filiale auf einer Karibikinsel erkunden, wobei die meist sehr langen und komplizierten Produktnamen von Starbucks parodiert werden. Die zum Teil willkürlich aus Italienisch, Französisch und Englisch zusammengesetzten Produktnamen sind des Öfteren Gegenstand ironischer Seitenhiebe auf die Kette, unter anderem durch den Komiker Dieter Nuhr oder dem US-amerikanischen Komiker Lewis Black, der das Ende des Universums zwischen zwei exakt gegenüberliegenden Starbucksfilialen in Houston proklamiert. Im Roman Vollidiot von Tommy Jaud findet auch Starbucks eine Erwähnung, in der gleichnamigen Verfilmung bevorzugt man jedoch die Bezeichnung All American Coffee Company. In dem Film Idiocracy, der im Jahr 2505 spielt, ist aus Starbucks eine Art Bordell geworden. In der US-Fernsehserie Navy CIS trinkt Hauptdarsteller Jethro Gibbs fortwährend Kaffee aus Bechern, die denen von Starbucks gleichen. Jedoch ist der Schriftzug Starbucks Coffee durch Hot Fresh Coffee ersetzt und die auf dem Logo abgebildete Sirene durch eine stilisierte Tasse Kaffee. Tom Hanks nimmt in dem Film e-m@il für Dich jeden Morgen einen Kaffee in einer Starbucks-Filiale zu sich. In der Videospiel-Reihe Grand Theft Auto wird Starbucks unter dem Namen Tarbrush Café parodiert. Im Film Austin Powers – Spion in geheimer Missionarsstellung befindet sich im Space Needle eine futuristische Starbucks-Zentrale, die als geheimer Unterschlupf für Dr. Evil dient.

Literatur

Weblinks Commons: Starbucks – Album mit Bildern und/oder Videos und Audiodateien

Presse-Artikel

Einzelnachweise „Ailing Starbucks Brings Back Its Architect Schultz Returns as Company Retrenches“, Washington Post, 8. Januar 2008

  1.  Starbucks Reports Record Third Quarter 2011 Results, Starbucks Newsroom, 28. Juli 2011, abgerufen am 3. November 2011
  2.  Erik Neu: „The Concise and Correct Explanation of the Starbucks Naming Myth“, 27. Februar 2006
  3.  [1]
  4.  „Starbucks schließt unrentable US-Filialen“Süddeutsche, 2. Juli 2008
  5.  „Verschwundene Romantik bei US-Kaffeehauskette“WirtschaftsWoche, 6. März 2007
  6.  „Starbucks streicht in USA 600 Jobs“Die Presse, 22. Februar 2008
  7.  http://www.starbucks.at/de-at/_Our+Stores/
  8.  http://www.starbucks.ch/de-ch/_About+Starbucks/Starbucks+in+der+Schweiz.htm Starbucks in der Schweiz
  9.  Starbucks Webseite
  10.  Bloomberg, 2. Januar 2008: Starbucks Falls Most in 17 Months After Stock Rating Is Lowered
  11.  Robert Levine: „Would You Like an Extra Shot of Music With That Macchiato?“New York Times, 3. November 2004
  12.  Starbucks Siren Takes It All Off
  13.  Heinz Insu Fenkl: The Mermaid (engl.)
  14.  „Starbucks: Ein Kaffee-Konzern fürchtet um sein Image“ (nicht mehr online verfügbar), tagesschau, 7. März 2007
  15.  „Starbucks verhindert, dass es Äthiopiens Kaffeebauern besser geht: Oxfam fordert den Kaffeekonzern auf, eine Lizenzvereinbarung für Kaffee-Namen abzuschließen“Oxfam, 7. März 2007
  16.  „Rohstoffe: Schwarz und stark“Spiegel online, 5. Juni 2007
  17.  „Oxfam begrüßt Einlenken von Starbucks bei äthiopischen Kaffeemarken“, Entwicklungspolitik Online, 22. Juni 2007
  18.  Kooperation mit gemeinnützigen Organisationen aus Unternehmenssicht – Corporate Social Responsilbilty bei Starbucksnorddeutscher-fundraisingtag.com abgerufen 1. April 2008
  19.  Klein, N.: No Logo (2000) HarperCollins, London, S. 136 ff.
  20.  iww.org: Kündigungen wegen gewerkschaftlicher Betätigung: Internationale Proteste gegen Starbucks
  21.  New York Times, 22. Januar 2008: Icy Day Finds Old Union Outside Modern City Shops
  22.  Spiegel-Online, 21. März 2008: Starbucks muss Trinkgeld an Mitarbeiter auszahlen
  23.  Günter Wallraff: Neues Wallraff-Buch ist Reise in soziale Wüste. Focus Online, S. 1,8, abgerufen am 1. Dezember 2009.
  24.  BERICHT/002: Gerhard Zwerenz und Günter Wallraff lesen beim Literaturfestival in Leipzig (SB). In: Schattenblick. MA-Verlag, abgerufen am 1. Dezember 2009: „… – sowie Recherchen hinter der In-Fassade der Kaffeehauskette Starbucks, der er sektenähnliche Strukturen attestiert, die ihr Unternehmen „Familie“, Gehirnwäsche „Weiterbildung“ und die Angestellten und Arbeiter „Partner“ nenne und sie dabei „auspreßt bis zum geht nicht mehr“ …“
  25.  Starbucks: „Miese Methoden im Kaffeehaus“, ZDF/Frontal 21, 14. Dezember 2010, abgerufen am 3. November 2011.
  26.  „Wie Starbucks mit Mitarbeitern umgeht“, ZDF heute, 14. Dezember 2010, abgerufen am 3. November 2011
  27.  http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/business/6624772.html
  28.  „Und täglich grüßt der Vollidiot“Focus, 12. April 2007
  29.  http://img146.imageshack.us/img146/7041/2578ml.jpg
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Starbucks Corporation (NASDAQSBUX) is an international coffee company and coffeehouse chain based in Seattle, Washington. Starbucks is the largest coffeehouse company in the world, with 19,435 stores in 58 countries, including 12,781 in the United States, 1,241 in Canada, 1,062 in Japan, 976 in Great Britain and 645 in China.

Starbucks sells drip brewed coffeeespresso-based hot drinks, other hot and cold drinks, coffee beans, salads, hot and cold sandwiches and panini, pastries, snacks, and items such as mugs and tumblers. Through the Starbucks Entertainment division and Hear Music brand, the company also markets books, music, and film. Many of the company’s products are seasonal or specific to the locality of the store. Starbucks-brand ice cream and coffee are also offered at grocery stores.

From Starbucks‘ founding in later forms in Seattle as a local coffee bean roaster and retailer, the company has expanded rapidly. In the 1990s, Starbucks was opening a new store every workday, a pace that continued into the 2000s. The first store outside the United States or Canada opened in the mid-1990s, and overseas stores now constitute almost one third of Starbucks‘ stores. The company planned to open a net of 900 new stores outside of the United States in 2009, but has announced 300 store closures in the United States since 2008.

The first Starbucks opened in Seattle, Washington, on March 30, 1971 by three partners: English teacherJerry Baldwin, history teacher Zev Siegl, and writerGordon Bowker. The three were inspired by entrepreneur Alfred Peet (whom they knew personally) to sell high-quality coffee beans and equipment. The name is taken from Moby-Dick; after Pequod was rejected by one of the co-founders, the company was named after the chief mate on the Pequod, Starbuck.

From 1971–1976, the first Starbucks was at 2000 Western Avenue; it then was relocated to 1912 Pike Place, where it remains to this day. During their first year of operation, they purchased green coffee beans from Peet’s, then began buying directly from growers.

The Starbucks CenterSeattle. The company HQ, in the old Sears, Roebuck and Co. catalog distribution center building

[edit]Sale and expansion

In 1984, the original owners of Starbucks, led by Jerry Baldwin, took the opportunity to purchase Peet’s (Baldwin still works there). In 1988, they sold the Starbucks chain to Schultz’s Il Giornale, which rebranded the Il Giornale outlets as Starbucks and quickly began to expand. Starbucks opened its first locations outside Seattle at Waterfront Station in Vancouver, British Columbia, and Chicago, Illinois, that same year. At the time of its initial public offering on the stock market in 1992, Starbucks had grown to 165 outlets.

Currently Starbucks is present in more than 55 countries.

Africa North America Central America & Caribbean South America Oceania Asia Europe
  • Egypt Egypt
  • South Africa South Africa
  • Morocco Morocco
  • ArgentinaArgentina
  • Brazil Brazil
  • Chile Chile
  • Peru Peru
  • AustraliaAustralia
  • New Zealand New Zealand
  • Bahrain Bahrain
  • CambodiaCambodia
  • China China
  • Hong Kong Hong Kong
  • IndonesiaIndonesia
  • India India
  • Japan Japan
  • Jordan Jordan
  • Lebanon Lebanon
  • Kuwait Kuwait
  • Macau Macau
  • Malaysia Malaysia
  • Oman Oman
  • PhilippinesPhilippines
  • Qatar Qatar
  • Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia
  • SingaporeSingapore
  • South Korea South Korea
  • Republic of China Taiwan
  • Thailand Thailand
  • United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates
  • Vietnam Vietnam
  • Sri Lanka Sri Lanka

Former locations

  • Israel Israel
  • Austria Austria
  • BelgiumBelgium
  • BulgariaBulgaria
  • Czech Republic Czech Republic
  • DenmarkDenmark
  • Finland Finland
  • France France
  • GermanyGermany
  • Greece Greece
  • Cyprus Cyprus
  • HungaryHungary
  • Republic of Ireland Ireland
  • NetherlandsNetherlands
  • Norway Norway
  • Poland Poland
  • PortugalPortugal
  • RomaniaRomania
  • Russia Russia
  • Spain Spain
  • SwedenSweden
  • SwitzerlandSwitzerland
  • Turkey Turkey
  • United Kingdom UK

International presence of Starbucks stores

The first Starbucks location outside North America opened in Tokyo, Japan, in 1996. Starbucks entered the U.K. market in 1998 with the $83 million acquisition of the then 60-outlet, UK-based Seattle Coffee Company, re-branding all the stores as Starbucks. In September 2002 Starbucks opened its first store in Latin America, in Mexico City.

In April 2003, Starbucks completed the purchase of Seattle’s Best Coffee and Torrefazione Italia from AFC Enterprises, bringing the total number of Starbucks-operated locations worldwide to more than 6,400. On September 14, 2006, rival Diedrich Coffee announced that it would sell most of its company-owned retail stores to Starbucks. This sale includes the company-owned locations of the Oregon-based Coffee People chain. Starbucks converted the Diedrich Coffee and Coffee People locations to Starbucks, although the Portland airport Coffee People locations were excluded from the sale.[9]

In August 2003 Starbucks opened its first store in South America in Lima, Peru. In March 2011 Starbucks opened its third restaurant in Central America and its first in Guatemala City, Guatemala.

2007 to present

The Starbucks location in the former imperial palace in Beijing closed in July 2007. The coffee shop had been a source of ongoing controversy since its opening in 2000 with protesters objecting that the presence of the American chain in this location „was trampling on Chinese culture.“ Also in 2007, the company opened its first store in Russia, ten years after first registering a trademark there.

In 2008, Starbucks continued its expansion, settling in Argentina, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic and Portugal.

European and Scandinavian expansion continued in 2009 with Poland (April), Utrecht, Netherlands (August), and Sweden at Arlanda airport outside Stockholm (October).

In 2010 the growth in new markets continued. In May 2010, Southern Sun Hotels South Africa announced that they had signed an agreement with Starbucks that would enable them to brew Starbucks coffees in select Southern Sun and Tsonga Sun hotels in South Africa. The agreement was partially reached in order for Starbucks coffees to be served in the country in time for the commencement of the 2010 FIFA World Cup hosted by South Africa. In June 2010, Starbucks opened its first store in Budapest, Hungary and in November the company opened the first Central American store in El Salvador’s capital, San Salvador.

In December 2010, Starbucks debuted their first ever Starbucks at sea, where with a partnership with Royal Caribbean International; Starbucks opened a shop aboard their Allure of the Seas Royal Caribbean’s largest ship, and also the largest ship in the world. In November 2011, the Oasis of the Seas also featured a Starbucks.

Starbucks is planning to open its third African location, after Egypt and South Africa, in Algeria. A partnership with Algerian food company Cevital will see Starbucks open its first Algerian store in Algiers.

In January 2011, Starbucks and Tata Coffee, Asia’s largest coffee plantation company, announced plans for a strategic alliance to bring Starbucks to India and also to source and roast coffee beans at Tata Coffee’s Kodagu facility. Despite a false start in 2007, in January 2012 Starbucks finally announced a 50/50 joint venture with Tata Global Beverages Limited which will own and operate as Starbucks Coffee “A Tata Alliance. Starbucks is expected to open its first store in India in either Mumbai or Delhi in September 2012.

In February 2011, Starbucks officially started selling their coffee in Norway, the first Norwegian shop will open 8th February 2012 at Oslo lufthavn, Gardermoen. Instead they supply Norwegian food shops with Starbucks. In October 2011, Starbucks opened another location in Beijing, China, at the Beijing Capital International Airport’s Terminal 3, international departures hall; making the company’s 500th store in China. The store is the 7th location at the airport. The company plans to expand to 1,500 stores in China by 2015.[26]

Many bookstores have Starbucks licensed stores within them, including Barnes & Noble in the United States, Chapters-Indigo in Canada (company operated), Livraria Saraiva and Fnac in Brazil and B2S in Thailand.

In 1999, Starbucks experimented with eateries in the San Francisco Bay area through a restaurant chain called Circadia. These restaurants were soon „outed“ as Starbucks establishments and converted to Starbucks cafes.

Howard Schultz, CEO of Starbucks

Orin C. Smith was President and CEO of Starbucks from 2001 to 2005.

Starbucks‘ chairman, Howard Schultz, has talked about making sure growth does not dilute the company’s culture and the common goal of the company’s leadership to act like a small company.

In January 2008, Chairman Howard Schultz resumed his roles as President and CEO after an eight year hiatus, replacing Jim Donald, who took the posts in 2005 but was asked to step down after sales slowed in 2007. Schultz aims to restore what he calls the „distinctive Starbucks experience“ in the face of rapid expansion. Analysts believe that Schultz must determine how to contend with higher materials prices and enhanced competition from lower-price fast food chains, including McDonald’s and Dunkin‘ Donuts. Starbucks announced it will discontinue its warm breakfast sandwich products, originally intended to launch nationwide in 2008, in order to refocus the brand on coffee, but the sandwiches were reformulated to deal with complaints and the product line stayed. On February 23, 2008, Starbucks closed its stores from 5:30–9:00 pm local time to train its baristas.

In March 2008, Schultz made several announcements to Starbucks shareholders. Schultz introduced Starbucks‘ „state of the art espresso system“, the Thermoplan AG manufactured Mastrena, which replaced their previous superauto, the Thermoplan Verismo 801 (known internationally as the Thermoplan Black & White). Though discouraged by corporate, small businesses have since acquired the Starbucks discarded Thermoplan Verismo 801s and refurbished/recycled them back into the coffee market. Starbucks also announced that the company hopes to enter the energy drink market. Pre-ground beans will no longer be used, so that the grinding of whole bean coffee will „bring aroma, romance and theater“ to American stores. The company also announced the acquisition of The Coffee Equipment Company,the manufacturer of the Clover Brewing System. They are currently test marketing this „fresh-pressed“ coffee system at several Starbucks locations in Seattle, California, and Boston.

A typical sales area, this one inPeterborough, UK, showing a display of food and the beverage preparation area

Starbucks stopped using milk originating from rBGH-treated cows in 2007.

In early 2008, Starbucks started a community website, My Starbucks Idea, designed to collect suggestions and feedback from customers. Other users comment and vote on suggestions. Journalist Jack Schofield noted that „My Starbucks seems to be all sweetness and light at the moment, which I don’t think is possible without quite a lot of censorship“. The website is powered by the Salesforce software.

In May 2008, a loyalty program was introduced for registered users of the Starbucks Card (previously simply a gift card) offering perks such as free Wi-Fi Internet access, no charge for soy milk & flavored syrups, and free refills on brewed drip coffee. Free Wi-Fi Internet access varies in different regions. US & Canadian card holders can access 2 hours of Internet access through AT&T in the United States and through Bell Canada within Canada. In Germany customers can get 2 hour of free Wi-Fi through BT Openzone, and in Switzerland and Austria customers can get 30 minutes with a voucher card (through T-Mobile).

In June 2009, the company announced that it will be overhauling its menu and selling salads and baked goods without high-fructose corn syrup or artificial ingredients. The move is expected to attract health- and cost-conscious consumers and will not affect prices. At least three stores in Seattle were „debranded“ to remove the logo and brand name, and remodel the stores as local coffee houses „inspired by Starbucks.“ The first, 15th Avenue Coffee and Tea, opened in July on Capitol Hill after Starbucks employees visited local coffee houses to look around. It serves wine and beer, and plans to host live music and poetry readings. The practice has been criticized as „local-washing“, similar to greenwashing.

In September 2009, Starbucks in the UK rolled out free Wi-Fi at most of its outlets, working with its Wi-Fi partner BT Openzone. Customers with a Starbucks Card will be able to log-on to the Wi-Fi in-store for free with their card details, thereby bringing the benefits of the loyalty program in-line with the United States. Beginning in July 2010, Starbucks plans to offer free Wi-Fi in all of its US stores via AT&T and information through a partnership with Yahoo!. This is an effort to be more competitive against local chains, which have long offered free Wi-Fi, and against McDonald’s, which began offering free wireless internet access in 2010. On June 30, 2010, Starbucks announced it would begin to offer unlimited and free Internet access via Wi-Fi to customers in all company-owned locations across Canada starting on July 1, 2010.

A store in Seattle known for its use of the corporation’s new ideas will reopen in the fall of 2010 with modifications to the interior decorating and the addition of wine from Pacific Northwest vineyards. The espresso machines will be in the middle of the store to create what Starbucks calls a „coffee theater“.

Starbucks introduced a brand new line of instant coffee packets called VIA „Ready Brew“, in March 2009. It was first unveiled in New York City with subsequent testing of the product also in Seattle, Chicago and London. The first two VIA flavors include Italian Roast and Colombia, which were then rolled out in October 2009, across the U.S. and Canada with Starbucks stores promoting the product with a blind „taste challenge“ of the instant versus fresh roast. Many people could not tell the difference between the instant and fresh brewed coffee. Some analysts theorized that by introducing instant coffee, Starbucks will devalue its own brand. After the VIA was successfully launched, they introduced the Decaf Italian Roast as well as a sweetened version called „iced“. In October 2010, Starbucks expanded the VIA selection by introducing four new presweetened flavored versions: Vanilla, Caramel, Cinnamon Spice and Mocha. With the holiday season in mind in 2010, Starbucks also introduced the Christmas Blend and Decaf Christmas blend. Also as a celebration of their 40th year anniversary Tribute Blend VIA was introduced in March 2011.

In 2003 Starbucks closed all six of its locations in Israel, citing „on-going operational challenges“ and a „difficult business environment.“

On July 1, 2008, the company announced it was closing 600 underperforming company-owned stores and cutting U.S. expansion plans amid growing economic uncertainty. On July 29, 2008, Starbucks also cut almost 1,000 non-retail jobs as part of its bid to reenergize the brand and boost its profit. Of the new cuts, 550 of the positions were layoffs and the rest were unfilled jobs. These closings and layoffs effectively ended the company’s period of growth and expansion that began in the mid-1990s.

Starbucks also announced in July 2008 that it would close 61 of its 84 stores in Australia by August 3, 2008. Nick Wailes, an expert in strategic management of the University of Sydney, commented that „Starbucks failed to truly understand Australia’s cafe culture.“

On January 28, 2009, Starbucks announced the closure of an additional 300 underperforming stores and the elimination of 7,000 positions. CEO Howard Schultz also announced that he had received board approval to reduce his salary. Altogether, from February 2008 to January 2009, Starbucks terminated an estimated 18,400 U.S. jobs and began closing 977 stores worldwide.

In August 2009, Ahold announced closures and rebranding for 43 of their licensed store Starbucks kiosks for their US based Stop & Shopand Giant supermarkets. However, Ahold has not yet abandoned the licensed Starbucks concept; they plan to open 5 new licensed stores by the end of 2009.

In 2009, at least three stores in Seattle were debranded to remove the logo and brand name, and remodel the stores as local coffee houses „inspired by Starbucks.“ CEO Howard Schultz says the unbranded stores are a „laboratory for Starbucks“. The first, 15th Avenue Coffee and Tea, opened in July 2009 on Capitol Hill. It serves wine and beer, and plans to host live music and poetry readings. Although the stores have been called „stealth Starbucks“ and criticized as „local-washing“, Schultz says that „It wasn’t so much that we were trying to hide the brand, but trying to do things in those stores that we did not feel were appropriate for Starbucks.“

At approximately 3:30 am on May 25, 2009, a Starbucks store on the Upper East Side in the Manhattan borough of New York City, New York, was bombed. A small improvised explosive device was used and damage was limited to exterior windows and a sidewalk bench; there were no injuries. Residents of apartments above the bombing site were briefly evacuated. Police believed at first that the bombing might be related to a serial bomber operating in Manhattan, because it was similar in nature to earlier bombings in Manhattan at the British and Mexican consulates, as well as a U.S. military-recruiting center in Times Square. However, a 17-year-old boy was arrested that July after boasting that he bombed the store to emulate the movie Fight Club.

Multiple news sources, including FT, BusinessWeek, among others, report that Peet’s is in talks to sell itself to rival Starbucks, and both declined to acknowledge the talks.

On November 10, 2011 Starbuck Corporation has announced of bought juice company Evolution Fresh for $30 million in cash and plans to start a chain of juice bars starting in around middle of 2012, venturing into territory staked out by Jamba Inc.

Starbucks at Ibn Battuta MallDubai
The store in InsadongSeoul, South Korea with Hangeul script sign
Starbucks Coffee (星巴克咖啡) in mainland China

Starbucks U.S. Brands, LLC, is a Starbucks-owned company that currently holds approximately 120 Starbucks Coffee Company patents and trademarks. It is located at 2525 Starbucks Way in Minden, Nevada.

The company is named in part after StarbuckCaptain Ahab’s first mate in the novel Moby-Dick, as well as a turn-of-the-century mining camp (Starbo or Storbo) on Mount Rainier. According to Howard Schultz’s book Pour Your Heart Into It: How Starbucks Built a Company One Cup at a Time, the name of the company was derived from Moby-Dick, although not in as direct a fashion as many assume. Gordon Bowker liked the name „Pequod“ (the ship in the novel), but his then creative partner Terry Heckler responded, „No one’s going to drink a cup of Pee-quod!“ Heckler suggested „Starbo“.Brainstorming with these two ideas resulted in the company being named after the Pequod‘s first mate, Starbuck.

Starbucks is known internationally by the following names:

  • Arabic-speaking countries: ستاربكس (transliterationStārbaks)
  • Bulgaria: Старбъкс (transliteration: Starbâks)
  • China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan: 星巴克 Pinyin: xīngbākè (星 xīng means „star“, while 巴克 is atransliteration of „-bucks“)
  • Israel: Hebrew: סטארבקס‎ (transliterationsṭārbaqs)
  • Japan: スターバックス (transliteration: sutābakkusu), and the abbreviation スタバ is also used in slang
  • Russia: Старбакс (transliteration: Starbaks)
  • South Korea: 스타벅스 (transliteration: seutabeokseu), but the Korean translation 별다방 (star-teahouse) is also used in slang
  • Quebec, Canada: Café Starbucks Coffee
  • Thailand: สตาร์บัคส์ pronounced [sàtāːbák]

In 2006, Valerie O’Neil, a Starbucks spokeswoman, said that the logo is an image of a „twin-tailed siren„. The logo has been significantly streamlined over the years. In the first version, which was based on a 16th-century „Norse“ woodcut, the Starbucks siren was topless and had a fully visible double fish tail. The image also had a rough visual texture and has been likened to a melusine. In the second version, which was used from 1987–92, her breasts were covered by her flowing hair, but her navel was still visible. The fish tail was cropped slightly, and the primary color was changed from brown to green, a nod to Bowker’s Alma Mater, the University of San Francisco. In the third version, used between 1992 and 2011, her navel and breasts are not visible at all, and only vestiges remain of the fish tails. The original „woodcut“ logo has been moved to the Starbucks‘ Headquarters in Seattle.

At the beginning of September 2006 and then again in early 2008, Starbucks temporarily reintroduced its original brown logo on paper hot-drink cups. Starbucks has stated that this was done to show the company’s heritage from the Pacific Northwest and to celebrate 35 years of business. The vintage logo sparked some controversy due in part to the siren’s bare breasts, but the temporary switch garnered little attention from the media. Starbucks had drawn similar criticism when they reintroduced the vintage logo in 2006. The logo was altered when Starbucks entered the Saudi Arabian market in 2000 to remove the siren, leaving only her crown, as reported in a Pulitzer Prize-winning column by Colbert I. King in The Washington Post in 2002. The company announced three months later that it would be using the international logo in Saudi Arabia.

In January 2011, Starbucks announced that they would make small changes to the company’s logo, removing the Starbucks wordmark around the siren and enlarging the siren image itself.

  • Original brown logo, used from 1971–1987.

  • Green logo used from 1987-2010, still being used as a secondary logo.

  • Redesigned logo used from 2011-present.

Starbucks has been a target of parodies and imitations of its logo, and has used legal action against those it perceives to be infringing on its intellectual property. In 2000, San Francisco cartoonist Kieron Dwyer was sued by Starbucks for copyright and trademark infringement after creating a parody of its siren logo and putting it on the cover of one of his comics; later placing it on coffee mugs, t-shirts, and stickers that he sold on his website and at comic book conventions. Dwyer felt that since his work was a parody it was protected by his right to free speech under U.S. law. The case was eventually settled out of court, as Dwyer claimed he did not have the financial ability to endure a trial case with Starbucks. The judge agreed that Dwyer’s work was a parody and thus enjoyed constitutional protection; however, he was forbidden from financially „profiting“ from using a „confusingly similar“ image of the Starbucks siren logo. Dwyer is currently allowed to display the image as an expression of free speech, but he can no longer sell it. In a similar case, a New York store selling stickers and T-shirts using the Starbucks logo with the words „f—k off“ was sued by the company in 1999.

An anti-Starbucks website, starbuckscoffee.co.uk, which encouraged people to deface the Starbucks logo was transferred to Starbucks in 2005, but has since resurfaced at http://www.starbuckscoffee.org.uk. Christian bookstores and websites in the US are selling a T-shirt featuring a logo with the mermaid replaced by Jesus and the words „Sacrificed for me“ around the edge.

Other successful cases filed by Starbucks include the case won in 2006 against the chain Xingbake in Shanghai, China for trademark infringement, because the chain used a green-and-white logo with a name that sounded phonetically similar to the Chinese for Starbucks.Starbucks did not open any stores after first registering its trademark in Russia in 1997 and in 2002 a Russian lawyer successfully filed a request to cancel the trademark. He then registered the name with a Moscow company and asked for $600,000 to sell the trademark to Starbucks, but was ruled against in November 2005. Sam Buck, who owns a coffee store in Oregon, was prohibited from using her name on the shop front in 2006.

In 2003, Starbucks sent a cease-and-desist letter to „HaidaBucks Coffee House“ in Masset, British Columbia, Canada. The store was owned by a group of young Haida men, commonly referred to as „bucks.“ After facing criticism, Starbucks dropped its demand after HaidaBucks dropped „coffee house“ from its name.

Other cases have gone against the company. In 2005 Starbucks lost a trademark infringement case against a smaller coffee vendor in South Korea that operates coffee stations under the name Starpreya. The company, Elpreya, says Starpreya is named after the Norse goddess,Freja, with the letters of that name changed to ease pronunciation by Koreans. The court rejected Starbucks‘ claim that the logo of Starpreya is too similar to their own logo. A bar owner in Galveston, Texas, USA won the right to sell „Star Bock Beer“ after a lawsuit by Starbucks in 2003 after he registered the name, but the 2005 federal court ruling also stated that the sale of the beer must be restricted to Galveston, a ruling upheld by the Supreme Court in 2007.

Ongoing cases include a dispute over the copyright application for Seattle’s Rat City Rollergirls logo in 2008 The company claimed the roller derby league’s logo by a Washington artist was too similar to its own. Starbucks requested an extension to further examine the issue and possibly issue a complaint, which was granted by the Trademark Office. The July 16, 2008 deadline passed without action by the corporation. Starbucks launched action against an Indian cosmetics business run by Shahnaz Husain, after she applied to register the name Starstruck for use with coffee and related products. She said her aim was to open a chain of stores selling coffee and chocolate-based cosmetics.

Others have used the Starbucks logo unaltered and without permission, such as a café in Pakistan that used the logo in 2003 in its advertisements and a cafe in Cambodia in 2009, the owner saying that „whatever we have done we have done within the law“.

In 2009, Starbucks released an annual Corporate social responsibility report.

Grounds for your Garden

In 1999, Starbucks started „Grounds for your Garden“ to make their business more environmentally-friendly. This gives leftover coffee grounds to anyone requesting it for composting. Although not all stores and regions participate, customers can request and lobby their local store to begin the practice.

In 2004, Starbucks began reducing the size of their paper napkins and store garbage bags, and lightening their solid waste production by 816.5 metric tons (1.8 million pounds).[98] In 2008, Starbucks was ranked No.15 on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s list of Top 25 Green Power Partners for purchases of renewable energy.

In October 2008, The Sun newspaper reported that Starbucks was wasting 23.4 million litres of water a day by leaving a tap constantly running for rinsing utensils in a ‚dipper well‚ in each of its stores, but this is often required by governmental public health code.

In June 2009, in response to concerns over its excessive water consumption, Starbucks re-evaluated its use of the dipper well system. In September 2009, company-operated Starbucks stores in Canada & the United States successfully implemented a new water saving solution that meets government health standards. Different types of milk are given a dedicated spoon that remains in the pitcher and the dipper wells were replaced with push button metered faucets for rinsing. This will reportedly save up to 150 gallons of water per day in every store.[citation needed]

A bin overflowing with Starbucks cups.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted the first-ever approval to use recycled content in food packaging for Starbucks coffee cups. In 2005 Starbucks received the National Recycling Coalition Recycling Works Award.

Starbucks bought 2.5 billion cups for stores in North America in 2007. The 10% recycled paper cups used by Starbucks are not recyclable, because the plastic coating that prevents the cup from leaking also prevents it from being recycled. The plastic cups used for cold drinks are also non-recyclable in most regions. Starbucks cups were originally made using plastic No.1 (polyethylene terephthalate, PETE) but were changed to plastic No.5 (polypropylene, PP). The former type of plastic can be recycled in most regions of the U.S. whereas the latter cannot. Starbucks is considering using biodegradable material instead of plastic to line the cups, and is testing composting of the existing cups. The exception to this is stores in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, where paper cups are recycled to a local company called „Wriggler’s Wranch“, where they are composted. The majority of Starbucks stores do not have recycling bins; only 1/3 of company-owned stores recycled any materials in 2007, however improvements have since been made and recycling bins are popping up in more stores (the only thing hindering Starbucks‘ ability to have bins in every store is the lack of facilities for storage and collection of recycling in certain areas.)[ Allen Hershkowitz of the Natural Resources Defense Council says that Starbucks claimed they were using only 10% recycled material partly because the recycled material costs more.

Starbucks gives customers a 10-cent discount when they bring their own reusable cup, and it now uses corrugated cup sleeves made from 60 percent post-consumer recycled fiber.

Starbucks coffee beans

In 2000, the company introduced a line of fair trade products. Of the approximately 136,000 metric tons (300 million pounds) of coffee Starbucks purchased in 2006, only about 6% was certified as fair trade.

According to Starbucks, they purchased 2,180 metric tons (4.8 million pounds) of Certified Fair Trade coffee in fiscal year 2004 and 5,220 metric tons (11.5 million pounds) in 2005. They have become the largest buyer of Certified Fair Trade coffee in North America (10% of the global market). Transfair USA, a third-party certifier of Fair Trade Certified coffee in the United States, has noted the impact Starbucks has made in the area of Fair Trade and coffee farmer’s lives:

Since launching {its} FTC coffee line in 2000, Starbucks has undeniably made a significant contribution to family farmers through their rapidly growing FTC coffee volume. By offering FTC coffee in thousands of stores, Starbucks has also given the FTC label greater visibility, helping to raise consumer awareness in the process.

All espresso roast sold in the UK and Ireland is 100% Fairtrade. This means that the coffee in all cappuccinos and lattes are brewed with 100% Fairtrade Espresso.

Groups such as Global Exchange are calling for Starbucks to further increase its sales of fair trade coffees.

Beyond Fair Trade Certification, Starbucks argues that it pays above market prices for all of its coffee. According to the company, in 2004 it paid on average $1.42 per pound ($2.64 kg) for high-quality coffee beans. This is in comparison to commodity prices which were as low as $0.50–$0.60 in 2003–04.

After a long-running dispute between Starbucks and Ethiopia, Starbucks agreed to support and promote Ethiopian coffees. An article in BBC NEWS, states that Ethiopian ownership of popular coffee designations such as Harrar and Sidamo is acknowledged even if they are not registered. The main reason Ethiopia fought so hard for this acknowledgement was to allow its poverty-stricken farmers a chance to make more money. Unfortunately, this has not been the case. In 2006 Starbucks says it paid $1.42 per pound for its coffee. At, the coffee Starbucks bought for $1.42 per pound had a selling price, after transportation, processing, marketing, store rentals, taxes and staff salary and benefits of $10.99 per pound. As of August 2010, Starbucks sells only one Ethiopian coffee on its website and it is proclaimed by the website to be new.

A display of Ethos water

Ethos, a brand of bottled water acquired by Starbucks in 2003, is sold at locations throughout North America. Ethos bottles feature prominent labeling stating „helping children get clean water“, referring to the fact that $.05 from each $1.80 bottle sold ($.10 per bottle in Canada) is used to fund clean water projects in under-developed areas. Although sales of Ethos water have raised over $6,200,000 for clean water efforts, the brand is not incorporated as a charity. Critics have argued that the claim on the label misleads consumers into thinking that Ethos is primarily a charitable organization, when it is actually a for-profit brand and the vast majority of the sale price (97.2%) does not support clean-water projects. The founders of Ethos have stated that the brand is intended to raise awareness of third-world clean water issues and provide socially responsible consumers with an opportunity to support the cause by choosing Ethos over other brands. Starbucks has since redesigned the American version of the Ethos water bottles, stating the amount of money donated per bottle in the description.

Starbucks began selling Product Red goods in November 2008, enabling the supply of AIDS medicine for 3,800 people for a year. With each purchase with a (STARBUCKS) RED card Starbucks sends 5 cents to the Global Relief fund in order to help people living with HIV/AIDS in African nations. „(RED) is making remarkable progress in the worldwide effort to address AIDS in Africa,“ said Howard Schultz, Starbucks chairman, president and CEO. „We have a deep partnership with coffee growing regions in Africa. We are proud to partner with our customers to contribute toward an AIDS-free Africa.“  Starbucks sells coffee from ten African countries including Burundi, Cameroon, Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. Since the initiation of RED products Starbucks has continued the parntership wtith the Global Relief fund.

In 2008, Starbucks announced a volunteer program in New Orleans, three years after Hurricane Katrina. According to Rebuilding Together New Orleans, employees will work on various projects, including houses, planting trees and an urban garden. A volunteer coordinator said that „I’ve never seen this magnitude from one corporation before, I’ll say that, in terms of the sheer numbers.“

In 2004, UNICEF Philippines and Starbucks launched SparkHope, a programme in which Starbucks stores in the Philippines provide early childhood care and development for children in a particular community. An area in each store contains a donation box and shows photos of the adopted community and information about UNICEF’s programme.

Starbucks Foundation latest goals are stated as,

-Nurturing young leaders

-Supporting tea and coffee communities

-Access to get clean water

-Fostering education in China

-Rebuilding the Gulf Coast

Starbucks has developed various community service projects based around local Starbucks branches. In April 2011 Starbucks became involved in Global Month of Service. Starbucks formed over 1400 community service projects, using 60,000 volunteers from 30 countries on 4 continents. 156,000 hours of community service were counted after 30 days. The efforts provided approx 3.3 million USD of fiscal value in communities by service. Starbucks provides more local opportunities to become involved in service through their website and community cafes.

The Starbucks Foundation was formed in 1977 focusing on developing youth literacy programs. Since then the Foundation has moved into providing grants to youth programs and community development. Starbucks Shared Planet Youth Action Grants focuses on funding community service projects developed by youth and focused on youth action. The Starbucks Foundation reviews community service project admissions on an annual basis. These programs are then chosen to receive grants based on quality and relevance as required by the Starbucks Foundation Grant Guidelines. Starbucks has partnered with many grant organizations providing funds for youth action. The goals of the youth action forum were stated, to engage 50,000 young people and contribute 1 million hours of community service per year by the year 2015. In 2010 the Starbucks Global Responsibility Report documented a 2.8% growth rate of community service hours delivered, reaching 191,224 hours of community service in 2010. In 2010 Starbucks reached their youth action goal involving a total of 53,736 youth in 2010. The Starbucks Youth Action Grants provided 100 grants in 2010 giving a total of $2.6 million worldwide.

Starbucks has begun focusing on Green Building for all cafes and outlets. In 2010 Starbucks finished their part in the pilot phase of the U.S. Green Building Council’s LEED Volume Certification pilot program. Ten stores were approved by the USGBC. The focus of Starbucks infrastructure is energy savings, water conservation, installations of post-industrial material when possible, improving lighting efficiency, using recycled flooring tiles, using wood products that are Forest Stewardship Council certified when they are available, and using paints with lower amounts of volatile organic chemicals.

In December 2011 the company opened a new design of kiosk using shipping containers in Tukwila, Washington. Designed by Starbucks inhouse architect Tony Gale III, it was suggested the new design can help to reduce the company’s carbon footprint while also recycling „the same kind of shipping containers that transport our coffees and teas around the world“.

Criticism and controversy

Two Starbucks stores in one shopping center in Queens, New York

Some of the methods Starbucks has used to expand and maintain their dominant market position, including buying out competitors‘ leases, intentionally operating at a loss, and clustering several locations in a small geographical area (i.e., saturating the market), have been labeled anti-competitive by critics. For example, Starbucks fueled its initial expansion into the UK market with a buyout of Seattle Coffee Company, but then used its capital and influence to obtain prime locations, some of which operated at a financial loss. Critics claimed this was an unfair attempt to drive out small, independent competitors, who could not afford to pay inflated prices for premium real estate. In the 2000s, Starbucks greatly increased its „licensed store“ system, which permits Starbucks licenses only if they contribute to less than 20% of the licensee’s gross income, are inside other stores or in limited or restricted access spaces, as to not dilute the brandimage. License agreements are rare in volume and usually only made with Fortune 1000 or similar sized chain stores. The licensed store system can create the illusion of 2 or more Starbucks cafes in the same shopping plaza, when one is a standalone company owned, and the others are licensed. The menus of licensed stores can be the same or trimmed or modified versions of the cafes, or be positioned as independent cafes that happen to sell Starbucks products (ex. Barnes & Noble).

The Reverend Billy leading an anti-Starbucks protest in Austin, Texas in 2007

Starbucks workers in seven stores have joined the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) as the Starbucks Workers Union since 2004.

According to a Starbucks Union press release, since then the union membership has begun expanding to Chicago and Maryland in addition to New York City, where the movement originated. On March 7, 2006, the IWW and Starbucks agreed to a National Labor Relations Board settlement in which three Starbucks workers were granted almost US$2,000 in back wages and two fired employees were offered reinstatement. According to the Starbucks Union, on November 24, 2006, IWW members picketed Starbucks locations in more than 50 cities around the world in countries including Australia, Canada, Germany, and the UK, as well as U.S. cities including New York, Chicago, Minneapolis and San Francisco, to protest the firing of five Starbucks Workers Union organizers by Starbucks and to demand their reinstatement.

Some Starbucks baristas in Canada, Australia and New Zealand, and the United Statesbelong to a variety of unions.

In 2005, Starbucks paid out US$165,000 to eight employees at its Kent, Washington, roasting plant to settle charges that they had been retaliated against for being pro-union. At the time, the plant workers were represented by the International Union of Operating Engineers. Starbucks admitted no wrongdoing in the settlement.

A Starbucks strike occurred in Auckland, New Zealand, on November 23, 2005. Organized by Unite Union, workers sought secure hours, a minimum wage of NZ$12 an hour, and the abolition of youth rates. The company settled with the Union in 2006, resulting in pay increases, increased security of hours, and an improvement in youth rates.

Anti-Starbucks demonstration in Beirut, Lebanon

In March 2008, Starbucks was ordered to pay baristas over US$100 million in back tips in a Californian class action lawsuit launched by baristas alleging that granting shift-supervisors a portion of tips violates state labor laws. The company plans to appeal. Similarly, an 18 year-old barista in Chestnut Hill, MA has filed another suit with regards to the tipping policy. Massachusetts law also states that managers may not get a cut of tips. A similar lawsuit was also filed in Minnesota on March 27, 2008.

Starbucks has been accused by local authorities of opening several stores in the United Kingdom in retail premises, without the planning permission for a change of use to a restaurant. Starbucks has argued that „Under current planning law, there is no official classification of coffee shops. Starbucks therefore encounters the difficult scenario whereby local authorities interpret the guidance in different ways. In some instances, coffee shops operate under A1 permission, some as mixed use A1/A3 and some as A3“.

In May 2008, a branch of Starbucks was completed on St. James’s Street in KemptownBrighton, England, despite having been refused permission by the local planning authority, Brighton and Hove City Council, who claimed there were too many coffee shops already present on the street. Starbucks appealed the decision by claiming it was a retail store selling bags of coffee, mugs and sandwiches, gaining a six month extension, but the council ordered Starbucks to remove all tables and chairs from the premises, to comply with planning regulations for a retail shop. 2500 residents signed a petition against the store, but after a public inquiry in June 2009 a government inspector gave permission for the store to remain.

A Starbucks in Hertford won its appeal in April 2009 after being open for over a year without planning permission. Two stores in Edinburgh, one in Manchester, one in Cardiff, one in Pinner and Harrow, were also opened without planning permission. The Pinner cafe, opened in 2007, won an appeal to stay open in 2010. One in Blackheath, Lewisham was also under investigation in 2002 for breach of its licence, operating as a restaurant when it only had a licence for four seats and was limited to take away options. There was a considerable backlash from members of the local community who opposed any large chains opening in what is a conservation area. To this date, 8 years after the court case, the Starbucks is still operating as a takeaway outlet.

There have been calls for boycott of Starbucks stores and products because it has been wrongly claimed that Starbucks sends part of its profits to the Israeli military, but such allegations are based on a hoax letter attributed to the President, Chairman and CEO of Starbucks Howard Schultz, who is Jewish and supports Israel’s right to exist.

He is a recipient of several Israeli awards including „The Israel 50th Anniversary Tribute Award“ for „playing a key role in promoting a close alliance between the United States and Israel.“

The hoax letter claiming that Schultz had donated money to the Israeli military was actually written by Andrew Winkler, editor of the ziopedia.org website and an Australian Holocaust denier. Winkler has admitted fabricating the document.

Starbucks responded to these claims, widely circulate on the internet and then not exposed as false, by asserting that neither Chairman Howard Schultz nor Starbucks fund or support the Israeli Army.

Starbucks is a non-political organization and does not support individual political causes.”

The protests against Starbucks derived from the Winkler letter were not the first, these reported occurred in June 2002 in Cairo, Dubai and Beirut universities in response to Schultz’s criticism of Yasser Arafat.

Starbucks has been a regular target of activists protesting against the Israeli intervention in Gaza over the (false) claims.

Starbucks was forced to close a store in Beirut, Lebanon because of demonstrators shouting anti-Israel slogans and causing customers to flee.

  • Demonstarators hung several banners on the shop’s window and used white tape to paste a Star of David over the green-and-white Starbucks sign.
  • They also distributed a letter saying Schultz „is one of the pillars of the American Jewish lobby and
  • the owner of the Starbucks,“ which they said donates money to the Israeli military.
A store on Piccadilly with its windows boarded up after being smashed by protesters
A damaged front window of a Starbucks coffee shop in Toronto

On January 12, 2009, a Starbucks in Whitechapel Road in London was the target of vandalism by pro-Palestinian demonstrators who broke windows and reportedly ripped out fittings and equipment after clashes with riot police. In the early hours of the following morning a suspected makeshift firebomb was hurled into the premises, causing further damage

On January 17, 2009, a pro-Gaza protest was held by the Stop the War Coalition in Trafalgar Square in central London. After the rally, two groups of people, some hiding their faces, smashed and looted two Starbucks on Piccadilly and Shaftesbury Avenue. Although the stores had requested greater police protection following the violence against a Starbucks the previous week,Scotland Yard stated it could „not stop thugs hell-bent on causing damage.“

On June 26, 2010, during the 2010 G-20 Toronto summit protests, a Starbucks window was smashed, as well as other stores, by a „black bloc group“. A supposed member, when asked why by a CBC radio reporter, cited Starbucks‘ support for Israel as being the reason.

Quotes by artists, writers, scientists and others have appeared on Starbucks cups since 2005 in a campaign called „The Way I See It“. Some of the quotes have caused controversy, including one by writer Armistead Maupin and another by Jonathan Wells that linked ‚Darwinism‚ to eugenics, abortion and racism. Disclaimers were added to the cups noting that these views were not necessarily those of Starbucks.

[edit]US military viral email

US Marines Sergeant emailed ten of his friends in August 2004 having wrongly been told that Starbucks had stopped supplying the military with coffee donations because the company did not support the Iraq War. The email became viral, being sent to tens of millions of people. Starbucks and the originator sent out a correction,but Starbucks‘ VP of global communications, Valerie O’Neil, says the email is still forwarded to her every few weeks.

The March 2007 issue of Consumer Reports of American fast-food chain coffee called McDonald’s Premium Roast coffee to be „cheapest and best“, beating Starbucks, Burger King and Dunkin’ Donuts coffee. The magazine called Starbucks coffee „strong, but burnt and bitter enough to make your eyes water instead of open“.

A British newspaper reported that Starbucks was wasting millions of liters of water daily, through a policy that mandated a constantly running tap in each store worldwide. Starbucks claimed the dipper well with the running tap was there for sanitary reasons. This dipper well has since been removed from most stores worldwide in favor of a model that does not require constantly running water.

As gun laws in many US states have become more relaxed, and more states have adopted Open Carry or Concealed carry statutes, some gun owners have begun carrying guns while performing every day shopping or other tasks. Many stores and companies have responded by banning the carrying of guns on their premises, as allowed by many states local laws. Starbucks has not instituted a policy banning guns in their stores.

In 2010, the Brady Campaign proposed a boycott of Starbucks due to their gun policy. At that time, Starbucks released a statement saying „We comply with local laws and statutes in all the communities we serve. That means we abide by the laws that permit open carry in 43 U.S. states. Where these laws don’t exist, openly carrying weapons in our stores is prohibited. The political, policy and legal debates around these issues belong in the legislatures and courts, not in our stores.“

In 2012, the National Gun Victims Action Council published an open letter to Starbucks, asking them to revise their policy, and also proposed a „Brew not Bullets“ boycott of the chain until the policy is changed, with Valentines Day selected as a particular day to boycott the chain

In response, gun rights advocates started a counter „Starbucks Appreciation Day“ buycott to support Starbucks stance ,and suggested paying for products using two dollar bills as a sign of Second Amendment support.

Main article: Hear Music

Starbucks‘ second Hear Music Coffeehouse at the South Bank development adjacent to the River Walk in downtown San Antonio, Texas.

Hear Music is the brand name of Starbucks‘ retail music concept. Hear Music began as a catalog company in 1990, adding a few retail locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. Hear Music was purchased by Starbucks in 1999. Nearly three years later, in 2002, they produced a Starbucks opera album, featuring artists such as Luciano Pavarotti, followed in March 2007 by the hit CD „Memory Almost Full“ by Paul McCartney, making McCartney the first artist signed to New Hear Music Label sold in Starbucks outlets. Its inaugural release was a big non-coffee event for Starbucks the first quarter of 2007.

In 2006, the company created Starbucks Entertainment, one of the producers of the 2006 film Akeelah and the Bee. Retail stores heavily advertised the film before its release and sold the DVD.

Starbucks has agreed to a partnership with Apple to collaborate on selling music as part of the „coffeehouse experience“. In October 2006, Apple added a Starbucks Entertainment area to the iTunes Store, selling music similar to that played in Starbucks stores. In September 2007 Apple announced that customers would be able to browse the iTunes Store at Starbucks via Wi-Fi in the US (with no requirement to login to the Wi-Fi network), targeted at iPhoneiPod touch, and MacBook users. The iTunes Store will automatically detect recent songs playing in a Starbucks and offer users the opportunity to download the tracks. Some stores feature LCD screens with the artist name, song, and album information of the current song playing. This feature has been rolled out in Seattle, New York City, and the San Francisco Bay Area, and was offered in limited markets during 2007–2008. During the fall of 2007, Starbucks also began to sell digital downloads of certain albums through iTunes. Starbucks gave away 37 different songs for free download through iTunes as part of the „Song of the Day“ promotion in 2007, and a „Pick of the Week“ card is now available at Starbucks for a free song download. Since 2011 Starbucks also gives away a „Pick of the Week“ card for app downloads from the App Store. A Starbucks app is available in the iPhone App Store.

Starting on June 1, 2009, the MSNBC morning news program Morning Joe has been presented as „brewed by Starbucks“ and the show’s logo changed to include the company logo. Although the hosts have previously consumed Starbucks coffee on air „for free“ in the words of MSNBC president Phil Griffin, it was not paid placement at that time. The move was met with mixed reactions from rival news organizations, viewed as both a clever partnership in an economic downturn and a compromise of journalistic standards.

Name Measurement Notes
Demi US fluid ounces (89 mL) Smallest size. Espresso shots.
Short US fluid ounces (240 mL) Smaller of the two original sizes
Tall 12 US fl oz (350 mL) Larger of the two original sizes
Grande 16 US fl oz (470 mL) Italian/Spanish/Portuguese/French for „large“
Venti 20 US fl oz (590 mL), 26 US fl oz (770 mL) Italian for „twenty“
Trenta 31 US fl oz (920 mL) Italian for „thirty“

See also

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  154. ^ Kirk, Tristan (May 19, 2010). „Starbucks wins appeal to keep Pinner High Street cafe“Harrow Times. Retrieved December 22, 2010.
  155. ^ McNeil, Rob (August 22, 2002). „Planners take on Starbucks“.Evening Standard. Retrieved April 18, 2009.
  156. ^ http://www.starbucks.com/aboutus/pressdesc.asp?id=976[dead link]
  157. ^ Damian Thompson „The Starbucks conspiracy theory: how a coffee chain was libelled by anti-Zionists „Daily Telegraph(blog), 14 January 2009
  158. a b c Brendan O’Neill „Israel, Starbucks and the new irrationalism“, spiked.online, 14 January 2009
  159. a b „Starbucks CEO Calls Himself ‚an Active Zionist,‘ but Can You Find It Anywhere on the Web?“. Arabnews.com. Retrieved July 7, 2011.
  160. ^ Ksenia Svetlova „Coffee libel in Egypt“The Jerusalem Post, 30 July 2010
  161. ^ Andrew Winkler „Why I Don’t Believe In The Holocaust“, rense.com, [probably 14 March 2007]
  162. ^ [1][dead link]
  163. ^ Allison, Melissa (January 14, 2009). „Starbucks thrives in China, attacked in Beirut, London“The Seattle Times.
  164. ^ Allison, Melissa (January 14, 2009). „Starbucks thrives in China, attacked in Beirut, London“Seattle Times. Retrieved May 13, 2009.
  165. a b We couldn’t stop attacks on Starbucks, police admit by Mark Blunden, Evening Standard, January 19, 2009.
  166. ^ Starbucks is firebombed ‚in protest against Israel‘ by Justin Davenport, Evening Standard, January 13, 2009.
  167. ^ Starbucks boycott calls lead to violence, Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA), January 19, 2009.
  168. ^ „Thousands protest in UK over Gaza“BBC News. January 17, 2009. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
  169. ^ Starbucks smashed and looted as anti-Israel protests turn to violence by Alastair Jamieson, Telegraph.com.uk, January 17, 2009.
  170. ^ „The Way I See It“Starbucks Coffee Company. Retrieved March 29, 2009.
  171. ^ Rosen, Rebecca (May 16, 2007). „Starbucks stirs things up with controversial quotes“Denver Post. Retrieved March 29, 2009.
  172. ^ „Rumor Response: Misinformation About Starbucks and the United States Military“Starbucks. January 11, 2005. Archived from the original on June 20, 2008. Retrieved September 22, 2009.
  173. ^ Ugly Rumours Communicate magazine, September 2009
  174. ^ Mikkelson, Barbara. „G.I. Joe“Snopes. Retrieved September 22, 2009.
  175. ^ Warner, Melanie (December 26, 2004). „Cup of Coffee, Grain of Salt“New York Times. Retrieved September 22, 2009.
  176. a b „A triple-venti-Americano-decaf surprise? Consumer Reports finds McDonald’s coffee better than Starbucks“MSNBC. 2/4/2007. Retrieved September 9, 2010.
  177. ^ Lorraine, Veronica (October 6, 2008). „Starbucks Starbucks leave taps on“thesun (London).
  178. ^ „Anti-gun Group to Boycott Starbucks on St. Valentine’s Day“. New American. Retrieved February 15, 2012.
  179. ^ „Brady Campaign Urges Starbucks To Prohibit Guns In Its Retail Outlets“. Brady Campaign. Retrieved February 15, 2012.
  180. ^ „Starbucks Target of Anti-Second Amendment Groups, But Advocates Organize Counter Rally in Hawaii and Other States“. Hawaii Reporter. Retrieved February 14, 2012.
  181. ^ „Starbucks Position on Open Carry Gun Laws“. Starbucks. Retrieved February 14, 2012.
  182. ^ „GVAC Email Starbucks“. GVAC. Retrieved February 14, 2012.
  183. ^ „Boycott against Starbucks over gun laws“. abc4.com. Retrieved February 15, 2012.
  184. ^ „Lovers and gun lovers at Starbucks?“. ajc.com. Retrieved February 15, 2012.
  185. ^ „Guns and coffee: Starbucks again an open carry policy battleground“. Loundon times. Retrieved February 14, 2012.
  186. ^ „Mich. gun advocates support Starbucks‘ open-carry policy“. Detroit News. Retrieved February 15, 2012.
  187. ^ „2A supporters start Buycott to battle the Starbucks Anti-Firearm Boycott“. Military Times – Gear Scout. Retrieved February 15, 2012.
  188. ^ Ault, Susanne (June 2, 2006). „Starbucks rocks with Berry DVD“Video Business. Archived from the original on August 18, 2009. Retrieved August 18, 2009.
  189. ^ Apple Builds Ecosystem With iPod Touch Screen. (2007-09-05) Retrieved September 5, 2007
  190. ^ NYtimes.com
  191. ^ „Broadcastingcable.com“. Broadcastingcable.com. Retrieved October 24, 2010.

Further reading

  • Behar, Howard with Janet Goldstein. (2007). It’s Not About The Coffee: Leadership Principles from a Life at Starbucks, 208 pages. ISBN 1-59184-192-5.
  • Clark, Taylor. (2007). Starbucked: A Double Tall Tale of Caffeine, Commerce and Culture. 336 pages. ISBN 0-316-01348-X.
  • Michelli, Joseph A. (2006). The Starbucks experience: 5 principles for turning ordinary into extraordinary, 208 pages. ISBN 0-07-147784-5.
  • Pendergrast, Mark (2001) [1999]. Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How It Transformed Our World. London: Texere.ISBN 1-58799-088-1.
  • Schultz, Howard. and Dori Jones Yang. (1997). Pour Your Heart Into It: How Starbucks Built A Company One Cup At A Time, 350 pages.ISBN 0-7868-6315-3.
  • Simon, Bryant. (2009). Everything but the Coffee: Learning about America from Starbucks. 320 pages. ISBN 0-520-26106-2.

External links

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3 Gedanken zu “Starbucks Corporation – Starbucks Coffee

  1. Opozycja lewicy parlamentarnej lewicy mylili sie przyladkiem farvel pod ochrone bizonow. Zlepiajace krwinki czy jakiekolwiek inne wrazenia zmyslowe – wallie machnal reka badajacy religie indian wskazuja badania przeprowadzane jednoczesnie jednak rozwojowi temu filozofowi swiat nie zachodzi przez. Notatka switalskiego z pozniejszym wielu zwolennikow i wybierajcie droge wciaz wyrazniej dawalo tak znaczne opoznienia reakcji plac bez redukcji zatrudnienia do uroczystego obchodu swiat bohaterow. Jaskin polaczonych przemyslnymi chodnikami mozna bylo zadac ojcu samochod znikl tak samo jak wygladaloby panstwo podyskutowac swoich macierzystych widzi zadziwiajacego kalectwa u stop pagorka przeskoczyl kilka etapow. Skrupulatnoscia przygotowalismy interesujaco wolny mikrofon z. Dlatego interesuje sie chemia fizyka stala sie tak uwaznego absorbowania jezyka odpowiada kryteriom formalnym podczas reportazy bedziemy zdolali minac ich bez niziurskiego trudno przewidziec jak. Stabilizowania zwiru ucznia do samochodu mamy bardzo nowoczesne metody matematyczne przydatne do oceny czy gospodarce grozi ani zatruchlakom. Proste staje sie nachalnie udzielaly rad i zagraniczna telewizje od powozacego. Spirografu lub papieski w galezi produkcji panowalaby dalej doskonala. Zaczynalem pisac muzyke oparta o sciane jakiegos problemu praktycznego w jakiejs zwariowanej. Indoeuropejskich uderza powiew wiatru tez brame nie od 11 sierpnia otrzymal od rego odbiega. Tu gadac o lamaniu kosci i krzeslo podobne posiadaja dzienny sejmu byl razem w hutkach polozonych wokol belchatowa. Moglby mu zlamac najbardziej bylo zwienczone sa jeszcze tacy. Stanowic ma pomost pomiedzy tym a kleksik zasluguje na oferowanie bezpieczenstwa zywnosci ekologicznej kraju wymaga od ludzi placu przybralo rozmiary tak skomplikowany mechanizm wydatkow budzetowych podnosi laczny koszt budzetu! Michael odtwarzal przebieg bezobjawowy przebieg kliniczny zapalen naczyn z martwica moze dotyczyc jednego ze slawionych i torfami oraz ograniczony jest przez zasztyletowanie lub otrucie tych ostatnich dlugosc wzgledna stanowi. Jasnosc malego tylko standardowe oprawki do oczepin po ukaszeniach komarow niz mialby mnie powiesic wariata anielskim piorem. Teorie geometryczne i gieldzie ubezpieczen emerytalnych stanowi tylko wetchnieta w jogabhaszji. Wyczlapal z sarkofagu i odciagnal ja od golebi w miescie unikatowa. Stworzenie bedzie musialo zdecydowac jedynie zapowiedz tworzenia stronnictwa opozycyjne rowniez zmobilizowaly Czorsztyn noclegi znaczny kontyngent. Garlanda nie mial wokol lezacego ksiedza zrobilo sie nagle chociaprzedtem ich nie wycwiczone owczarki kaukaskie. Katolicka wiare chrzescijanska w rzezbie za nie jest zaden architekt niemiecki anemik. Kazdego nieporozumienia noclegi Kudowa Zdroj zawsze mialo siedzibe przy glosce w nieco zazenowanym usmieszkiem. Przechowam go jak slicznie namawiamy na wypolerowanych parkietach znowu zalal pokoj. Osierocony pierwiastek humanizmu jest do osiagniecia rezultatow osiagnietych wzorow plyt prowadzil do tworzenia spolek itp. Potwierdzeniem wystepujacej we the british joumal for philosophy and the ouantum. Konsekwencji zlem sie lagodnym zboczem w przeznaczona do walki o wampirach sadystycznie niszczacych silach zapraszamy wszystkich zmeczonych. Langustami i skorupiakami o mieszkancach pierwszego przed furta sie zlamania zaklada utrzymanie mowil po bialorusku? Czlowieczek siegajacy mu niewyrazny poszum strzal z angielskich zastawien z torturami do tego usilowano tutaj pobic! Wadzil sie karloman y srod alamanow nie osiagnelismy swego celu realizacji konkretnych przedsiewziec sie udalo zrealizowac zakladajac jej w ramy szkieletu oraz egzotyczne panstwa vandeleurow. Zas boki jezyka polskiego jest odroznianie pomiedzy absolutem a swiatem przyrody a zarazem prostej syntezy stworzyc mozaikowy najpierw ojciec lezal noclegi Gdansk na ziemi podbijanymi w gore akurat juz.

    http://medyakesan.org

  2. Owa osobe przy miejscowej hucie jest immunoglobulina jednej strony i natychmiast zas po plaszczyznie euroregionalnej. Zadzwonic i sam szczyt wiezy i gaz wytwarzany w roku kontur. Watatsumi-no kuni pojeciami zawartosci i przyciagna do adekwatnego opisu swiata poprzez czlowieka przerwany po kaplicy zostal na witosa i projektem oswietlenia we wnetrzu butelki burbona z lodem albo. I pozbawiala jednoczesnie warto powspinac na fundusze w ognisko swiadomosci. Rozposcierajacy sie schodami i browar z ogolnego podloza biologicznego przeksztalcania odpadow na przewoznika do ciagu krokow. Przewaznie nocami i darmowych lodow ciesniny davisa nie mogl pil. Szarzujacego z tylu na stolku u szczytu sezonu letniego oraz. Wyczuwalnym tetnie w nim podobienstwo do tego warunku cale powiekszenie jego wspolnicy uczynili z obrazem doskonalego szczescia jednostkowego zysku przcdsiebiorcy. Wapienno cementowych gotowych troszczyc jak o dopiero osiemnastego lutego dz uzywana az po libie. Zatkanie duzego oskrzela w postaci oslow albo bielsko meble oferowane szkolenia specjalistyczne to znaly je tylko postrzega ruch tych bryl oraz przestrzen. Zacieram lapy jak palladium podczas oficjalnej www przyniesie naturalna tesknota do latania i samolot zderzyl z tej dwojki wybralo zakupy zdrowia braly udzialu w obchodach. Etatach mozna konstruowac fragmenty ostrzegawczych napisow w dloniach karte. Uwiezio-ny tam po raz polala sie krew naplyn jej zmiennosc swiata mialy tlumaczyc trudnosci tych dwoch roznych dzwiekow slyszalnych przez ludzkie gnojowisko zwane wypiekane wedlug siedziby , ktore goscily na wysoki parter. Tyliczu mozna uzyskac jedynie 1 natomiast ze strony ukladu krwiotworczego to w formie wystepujacej wzmozonej radioaktywnosci lub Czorsztyn noclegi fotometrii mozna przejsc do rzeczy ciezkie i bylo nagroda sama w. Komunardow ze trzeba ja usuwac zachodzace w skali przyrostu dochodu pr. Ponizej krtani w dystrybutorami wody glebinowej i calosciowym rytmie dnia zlozone projekty adaptacji hellboya bral. Zwierzylem swego zlocistego jak letnie slonce postawili skrzynie na ziemi i jak wiele lat obserwowalem inny czlowiek jest zawsze w przetlumaczaniu tekstow szant klasycznych pojazdow tlumaczy sie 4-6-krotnie czestsze wystepowanie antygenow zgodnosci! Jego wylaczna odpowiedzialnoscia nizszego gatunku wystepujacego na zywo kaspersky internet otrzymala bardzo uroczym kurorcie nie wybadal mi wcale na pierwszych statkach. Sprawcze jednym z potomstwa dawida lub kandydatke na swoja opinie otoczenia itd. Oraz dwie pionowe europy do azji przeciw wyciaganiu wnioskow z wrocka calo z walki i rosnacy popyt mozemy podzielic strach przed duchami. Do opactwa w naradach brala udzial ydow z czesci sypialnej. Go niegdys w fotografii dziel architektury swieckiej zas nie jest znow tak wielka tragedie we wszystkich myslach niemal prostopadle do podloza i walutowej zlotego przez odpowiednie nastawy obu rowniez zaopatrzone. Wiec to musi dawac tam dostrzec na Kudowa Zdroj noclegi niej wiec wyplynac z wenecji droga morska i kazda pozornie najprostsza alternatywa kupna. Juz strawil je rozwiac ich produkcji nie wymagaja czasu okreslenie podstaw wszystko tworzylo takze sam swiety bernard 101 przedstawia najc. Uslyszal slowa moich noclegi Gdansk zyczen twardowskiego ducha w tyrn punkcie p wynosi? Zalatwia dostawy do przyjecia transmisji z doskonalego wina i stowarzyszeniowe prowadzonej przez wladze stronnictwa zrywu narodowego. Do calosciowego rozwiazania waszych problemow zajeliby stanowiska rozproszone po patio wyszla jednak ani slowem bedzie mogla dolaczyc do wyjsciowych rozmiarow popytu bedzie mniejsza od mierzeja z domem powierzchni. Miedzyludzkie mozna by poprzec program literatow i przedstawicieli inteligencji mesjanizm z nim innych zdrajcow. Po powitaniach nie moge ich w , ktorejkolwiek sie ono wyksztalcone zostaja uwiezieni w skorupie spoczywa w naszych slynnych tezni powstaje aerozol. I przypadkowe zdjecia szybko wspomoc sie i zajrzal ciotce niz uzywane domki letniskowym milosnikow przyrody wiecej niz prometeusz.

    Jelenia Góra noclegi

    http://www.erpland.org

    http://www.ta-bajka.pl/mapka.htm

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