Ignaz Trebitsch-Lincoln (eigentlich Abraham Schwarz, auch: Ignaz Thimoteus Trebitzsch, auch unter dem Namen Moses Pinkeles bekannt) wurde in der ungarischen Kleinstadt Paks geboren.
- Nach einem evangelischen Theologiestudium 1898 wurde er in Hamburg als Lutheraner getauft.
- Nächste Station war Kanada, wo er presbyterianischer Prediger wurde
- Er heiratete eine Frau deutscher Herkunft; der Sohn aus dieser Ehe gab sich sein Leben lang als Jude aus.
- Darauf ging er nach Großbritannien, wo er zunächst anglikanischer Priester war,
- dann Quäker wurde und
- 1910 als Liberaler Mitglied des englischen Unterhauses für den Borough Darlington gewählt wurde.
- Während des Ersten Weltkriegs war er Öl-Unternehmer auf dem Balkan und
- militärischer Zensor.
- Nachdem er der Spionage für Deutschland angeklagt wurde,
- floh er 1916 nach New York,
- von wo aus er an Großbritannien ausgeliefert, wegen Verrat verurteilt wurde und drei Jahre Zuchthaus in London verbrachte.
- Nach seiner Freilassung 1919 begab er sich auf den Kontinent, versuchte in Amerongen Kaiser Wilhelm II. zu interviewen,
- war dann 1920 Teilnehmer und „Presse-Chef“ der Kapp-Putschisten, flüchtete nach dem Scheitern des Putsches nach Wien
- und kam über den Balkan im November 1921 nach China, wo er den größten Teil seines restlichen Lebens verbrachte.
In China war er Berater des chinesischen Kriegsherrn Wu Peifu.
1925 erhielt er die Erlaubnis, nach Großbritannien zurückzukehren, um sich von seinem Sohn zu verabschieden, der als Soldat wegen Mordes zum Tode verurteilt worden war.
Als sein Schiff jedoch in Marseille landete, erfuhr er, daß sein Sohn schon hingerichtet worden war.
Nun suchte er Trost im Buddhismus, wurde 1931 zum Mönch ernannt und nahm dabei den Namen Chao Kung an.
- Zu Beginn des Jahres 1932 wurde er Mitarbeiter des japanischen Geheimdienstes Kempeitai im chinesischen Shanghai sowie der ultra-nationalistischen japanischen Kokuryūkai.
- Bis zu seinem Tod in einem Krankenhaus in Shanghai arbeitete er für die Japaner in China.
Ignatius Timothy Trebitsch-Lincoln –Trebitsch-Lincoln Ignác – Ignaz Thimoteus Trebitzsch; 4 April, 1879 – 4 October, 1943) a Hungarian Jewish adventurer who spent parts of his life as a Protestant missionary, Anglican priest, British Member of Parliament for Darlington, German right-wing politician and spy, and Buddhist abbot in China.
Ignácz Trebitsch, Trebitsch Ignác(z) (later changed to Trebitsch Lincoln) was born to an Orthodox Jewish family in the town of Paks (also Orthodox shtetl) in Hungary in 1879, subsequently moving with his family to Budapest.
His father, Náthán Trebitsch –Trebitsch Náthán was from Moravia.
After leaving school he enrolled in the Royal Hungarian Academy of Dramatic Art, but was frequently in trouble with the police over acts of petty theft. In 1897 he fled abroad, ending up in London, where he took up with some Christian missionaries and converted from Judaism. He was baptised on Christmas day 1899, and set off to study at a Lutheran seminary in Breklum in Schleswig-Holstein, destined for the ministry. Restless, he was sent to Canada to carry out missionary work among the Jews of Montreal, first on behalf of the Presbyterians, and then the Anglicans. He returned to England in 1903 after a quarrel over the size of his stipend.
He became Tribich Lincoln (or I. T. T. Lincoln) by deed poll in October 1904 and secured British naturalization, in May 1909.
Trebitsch-Lincoln had the ability to talk himself into virtually any situation, and into any company. He made the acquaintance of the Archbishop of Canterbury, who appointed him as a curate in Appledore, Kent, his last ecclesiastical post. Soon after he met Seebohm Rowntree, the chocolate millionaire and prominent member of the Liberal Party, who offered him the position of his private secretary. With Rowntree’s support, he was nominated in 1909 as the prospective Liberal candidate for the Parliamentary constituency of Darlington in County Durham, even though he was still a Hungarian citizen at the time. In the election of January 1910 he beat the sitting Unionist, whose family had held the seat for decades. However, despite this dramatic entrance to political life, MPs were not at the time paid and Lincoln’s financial troubles grew worse. He was unable to stand when a second general election was called in November 1910. Darlington returned to its old allegiance.
In the years leading up to the outbreak of the First World War he was involved in a variety of failed commercial endeavours, living for a time in Bucharest, hoping to make money in the oil industry. Back in London with no money, he offered his services to the British government as a spy. When he was rejected he went to Holland and made contact with the Germans, who employed him as a double-agent.
Returning to England, he narrowly escaped arrest, leaving for the United States in 1915, where he made contact with the German military attaché, Franz von Papen. Papen was instructed by Berlin to have nothing to do with him, whereupon Trebitsch sold his „story“ to the New York World Magazine, which published under the banner headline Revelation of I. T. T. Lincoln, Former Member of Parliament Who Became a Spy.
The British government, anxious to avoid any embarrassment, employed the Pinkerton agency to track down the renegade. He was returned to England – not on a charge of espionage, which was not covered by the Anglo-American extradition treaty, but of fraud, far more apt in the circumstances. He served three years in Parkhurst Prison on the Isle of Wight, and was released and deported in 1919.
A penniless refugee, Trebitsch-Lincoln worked his way bit by bit into the extreme right-wing and militarist fringe in Weimar Germany, making the acquaintance of Wolfgang Kapp and Erich Ludendorff among others.
In 1920, following the Kapp Putsch, he was appointed press censor to the new government. In this capacity he met Adolf Hitler, who flew in from Munich the day before the Putsch collapsed.
With the fall of Kapp, Trebitsch fled south from Munich to Vienna to Budapest, intriguing all along the way, linking up with whole variety of fringe political factions, such as a loose alliance of monarchists and reactionaries from all over Europe known as the White International. Entrusted with the organisation’s archives, he promptly sold the information to the secret services of various governments. Tried and acquitted on a charge of high treason in Austria, he was deported yet again, ending up in China, where he took up employment under three different warlords including Wu Peifu.
Supposedly after a mystic experience in the late 1920s, Trebitsch converted to Buddhism, becoming a monk. In 1931 he rose to the rank of abbot, establishing his own monastery in Shanghai. All initiates were required to hand over their possessions to Abbot Chao Kung, (Zhào Kōng) as he now called himself, who also spent his time seducing nuns.
In 1937 he transferred his loyalties yet again, this time to the Japanese, producing anti-British propaganda on their behalf. Chinese sources say the opposite, that he wrote numerous letters and articles for the European press condemning Japanese imperial aggression in China.
After the outbreak of the Second World War, he also made contact with the Nazis, offering to broadcast for them and to raise up all the Buddhists of the East against any remaining British influence in the area.
The chief of the Gestapo in the Far East, SS Colonel Joseph Mesinger, urged that this scheme receive serious attention. It was even seriously suggested that Trebitsch be allowed to accompany German agents to Tibet to implement the scheme.
Heinrich Himmler was enthusiastic, as was Rudolf Hess, but it all came to nothing after the latter flew to Scotland in May 1941.
After this, Hitler put an end to all crackpot, pseudo-mystical schemes.
Even so, Trebitsch continued his work for the German and Japanese security services in Shanghai until his death in 1943.
- Wasserstein, Bernard (1988). The Secret Lives of Trebitsch Lincoln. Yale University Press. ISBN 0300040768.
- The Treacherous Mr. Trebisch by Eliza Segal
- „On the Trail of Trebitsch Lincoln, triple agent.“. New York Times. 1988-05-08. Retrieved 2008-08-10.
- John Gross (1988-05-17). „Books of The Times; On Clear Duplicity and Doubtful Consequence“. New York Times. Retrieved 2008-08-10. by John Gross, May 17, 1988
- He was an author, fraudster, MP, fantasist, charmer… but he did not go to Belmarsh by Matthew Parris, July 28, 2003
- Ju-Zan 巨赞, “Yang heshang Zhao-Kong,” 洋和尚照空 in Wenshi ziliao xuanji 文史资料选辑, No. 79, ed. Quanguo Zhengxie wenshi ziliao weiyuanhui 全国政协文史资料研究委员会, 1982, pp. 165-177.
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Ignaz Trebitsch-Lincoln
|Parliament of the United Kingdom|
|Member of Parliament forDarlington
January 1910 – December 1910
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