Stanley Kubrick

Self-portrait of Stanley Kubrick with a Leica ...

Der Jude vor dem Spiegel

Stanley Kubrick (* 26. Juli 1928 in New York City; † 7. März 1999 in Childwickbury Manor bei London) war ein jüdischer Regisseur, Produzent und Drehbuchautor. Seine Filme werden vor allem für ihre tiefe intellektuelle Symbolik und ihre technische Perfektion gelobt. Als jüdischer Regisseur war er sowohl berühmt als auch berüchtigt dafür, jede Szene bis ins kleinste Detail zu perfektionieren und dabei meist die Schauspieler bis an ihre psychischen und physischen Grenzen zu führen.

Die Hauptthemen seiner Filme sind die Unnahbarkeit der Realität und das Scheitern der Menschlichkeit, ausgedrückt durch das einfache Akzeptieren, das Ignorieren oder das Ringen der Protagonisten mit ihren dunklen, inneren Kräften – auch ihren Trieben. Authentizität, Kälte, Ehrlichkeit, Realität, Traum, Triebe – dies sind die wohl wichtigsten Schlagworte im Zusammenhang mit Kubricks Werk. Filmschaffende zählen ihn zu den bedeutendsten Filmemachern aller Zeiten.

Der Jude Kubrick war der Sohn eines Chirurgen. Seine jüdischen Großeltern väterlicherseits stammten aus Österreich, Rumänien und Polen.

1934 kam Kubricks sechs Jahre jüngere Schwester Barbara zur Welt. Ab 1941 besuchte er die Taft High School, wo er Fotograf der Schülerzeitung war. Nach dem Schulabschluß begann er seine Karriere als Fotograf. Nachdem er zunächst Amateurfotos an das New Yorker Look-Magazin verkauft hatte, arbeitete er dort schließlich als fester Angestellter. Eine Foto-Geschichte über einen Boxer, die er verfaßte, führte ihn tiefer in die behandelte Materie ein.

Als Fotograf war er mit investigativer Berichterstattung vertraut; dementsprechend inszenierte er 1951 seinen ersten Dokumentarfilm Day of the Fight, eine damals aufsehenerregende, obwohl nur 16 Minuten lange Studie über individuelle Leistungen im Boxring. Motiviert durch den Erfolg und die Anerkennung, die ihm durch das Erstwerk zugekommen waren, drehte er anschließend den Dokumentationsfilm Flying Padre und den wenig geglückten Gewerkschafts-Werbefilm The Seafarers.

Seine ersten, überwiegend aus privaten Kassen finanzierten Spielfilme Fear and Desire und Der Tiger von New York (Killer’s Kiss) zogen hingegen bereits die Aufmerksamkeit Hollywoods auf sich. Filmkennern wurde er mit dem klassischen Film noir Die Rechnung ging nicht auf (The Killing) ein Begriff, bevor ihm mit Wege zum Ruhm (mit Kirk Douglas in der Hauptrolle) der endgültige Durchbruch gelang. Seine typische Technik entwickelte sich in diesen Filmen: lange Einstellungen, eine Betonung der Gesichtsausdrücke und eine kalte, distanzierte Atmosphäre, die die Zärtlichkeit und Menschlichkeit der handelnden Figuren bloßstellen. Der passionierte Schachspieler Kubrick plante nach eigenen Angaben viele Filme und die handelnden Figuren analog zu den Konflikten und Bewegungen auf einem Schachbrett.

Kirk Douglas konnte Stanley Kubrick für die Regie des Monumentalfilms Spartacus gewinnen, nachdem der ursprüngliche Regisseur, Anthony Mann, nach wenigen Drehtagen gefeuert worden war. Der 32jährige Kubrick meisterte sowohl den Umgang mit den Hollywood-Stars als auch die aufwändigen Massenszenen hervorragend, auch wurde der Film zu einem Kassenerfolg, der Kubrick die finanziellen Mittel für seine folgenden Filme lieferte. Er selbst war jedoch aufgrund seines geringen Einflusses auf Drehbuch und Produktionsbedingungen sehr unzufrieden, weswegen er Spartacus als ein notwendiges Übel bezeichnete. Kubrick nahm sich vor, nie wieder einen Film zu drehen, bei dem er nicht von der Drehbucherstellung bis zum Schnitt volle Kontrolle über die Produktion haben würde. Er verließ das System von Hollywood und blieb dort bis zum Ende seines Lebens ein Außenseiter.

In den Jahren 1948 bis 1951 war Kubrick mit seiner Jugendliebe Toba Metz verheiratet und anschließend von 1954 bis 1957 mit der österreichischen Balletttänzerin Ruth Sobotka. Bei den Dreharbeiten zu Wege zum Ruhm lernte er Christiane Harlan kennen, die er 1958 heiratete. Zusammen mit ihr, den beiden gemeinsamen Töchtern Anya (1959–2009) und Vivian (* 1960) sowie seiner Stieftochter Katharina (* 1953) zog er in den frühen 1960ern nach England. Dort ließ er sich zunächst in der Nähe der Elstree-Studios bei London nieder, später kaufte er das Anwesen Childwickbury Mano im District St. Albans, wo er in den ehemaligen Stallungen Studio- und Schnitträume einrichten konnte. Für Presse und Hollywood galt er dort als extrem zurückgezogen lebend, nähere Bekannte allerdings sagten, dass er den allergrößten Teil seiner Zeit in der Umgebung von Familie, Freunden und Bekannten verbrachte.

Sein erster in England gedrehter Film war Lolita. Kubrick arbeitete eng mit dem Autor des Romans, Vladimir Nabokov, zusammen, um ein Drehbuch zu erarbeiten, mit dem die als Skandalbuch rezipierte Handlung verfilmt werden konnte, ohne dass der Film weltweit auf dem Index landete. Bei den Arbeiten zu Lolita entdeckte der Regisseur den Schauspieler Peter Sellers. Sellers verkleidet sich in seiner Rolle als Quilty in „Lolita“ bereits als Schulpsychologe Dr. Zemph, um Humbert zu täuschen. Kubrick fragte an, ob er in seinem nächsten Film Dr. Seltsam oder: Wie ich lernte, die Bombe zu lieben nicht gleich vier Rollen übernehmen könne. Sellers sagte zu, spielte jedoch anschließend „nur“ drei der Rollen des Films. Die vierte, den Flieger des Bombers übernahm Slim Pickens. Sellers wollte sie nicht spielen und brach sich bei dem Versuch ein Bein.

Dr. Seltsam – wie diverse andere Kubrick-Filme auch – wird bei vielen als einer der großartigsten Filme aller Zeiten betrachtet. Das hohe Risiko, die Anspannung des Kalten Krieges als schwarze und absurde Komödie aufzuführen, zahlte sich letztendlich aus. Der Film kann auch als eine intelligente Antwort auf die James-Bond-Filme gesehen werden. Berühmt wurden ebenfalls seine nächsten beiden Filme: 2001: Odyssee im Weltraum und Uhrwerk Orange. Alle drei Filme provozierten bei ihrem Erscheinen heftige öffentliche Kontroversen und werden immer noch in der Filmwissenschaft diskutiert, sowohl anhand der Themen und der Handlung als auch der in ihnen enthaltenen Symbolik.

Der Film Barry Lyndon hingegen war ein kommerzieller Misserfolg. Kubricks beeindruckendes, aber elitäres Unternehmen, die Schönheit barocker Malerei und Musik filmisch erlebbar zu machen und das Leben jener Zeit anhand der fiktiven Biographie Barry Lyndons (nach einem Roman von William Makepeace Thackeray) authentisch wiederzugeben, ging offenbar am Geschmack eines breiten Publikums vorbei. Der Film beeinflußte aber später Regisseure, die sich dem Thema widmeten.

Nach Barry Lyndon nahm Kubricks Produktionstempo ab. In den letzten 25 Jahren seines Lebens produzierte er nur noch drei weitere Filme. Allerdings waren sein Ruhm und das ihn umgebende „Mysterium“ derart groß, dass jede Veröffentlichung weltweit mit großen Erwartungen aufgenommen wurde. Wichtiger für Kubrick und wohl einmalig in der Geschichte Hollywoods war, daß er bei jedem Film weitgehend freie Hand und ein beinahe unbeschränktes Zeitbudget von den großen Studios bekam.

Mit Jack Nicholson drehte Kubrick den Film Shining, eine Adaption des Buches von Stephen King. Insbesondere King-Fans waren unzufrieden mit dem Film, da er sich große Freiheiten gegenüber der Handlung des Buches nahm. King selbst bezeichnete Kubricks Shiningals schlechteste Verfilmung eines seiner Bücher. Obwohl nicht so enthusiastisch von der zeitgenössischen Kritik rezipiert wie frühere Werke, gilt er mittlerweile als Klassiker der Mystery-Thriller. Der im Vietnamkrieg spielende Full Metal Jacket war Kubricks einziger Film, der aus seiner Sicht zu spät kam. Trotz strengster Geheimhaltung sickerten kurz vor der Fertigstellung des Filmes Informationen über das Thema an die Öffentlichkeit. Daraufhin stellte Oliver Stone seinen Film Platoon schneller als geplant fertig und brachte ihn wenige Wochen vor Full Metal Jacket in die Kinos. (In Deutschland lag die Kinopremiere von Full Metal Jacket ein halbes Jahr nach der von Platoon.)

Nachdem Kubrick Full Metal Jacket fertiggestellt hatte, arbeitete er unter dem Arbeitstitel Aryan Papers an einer Verfilmung des Romans Lügen in Zeiten des Krieges von Louis Begley und der Science-Fiction-Geschichte A.I. Als Steven Spielberg 1993 Schindlers Liste veröffentlichte, verwarf Kubrick sein Projekt Aryan Papers, um nicht in eine ähnliche Situation zu kommen, wie es bereits bei Full Metal Jacket der Fall gewesen war. Er ging davon aus, dass das Publikum auf absehbare Zeit vermutlich keinen weiteren Film zum Thema Holocaust würde sehen wollen. Kubrick arbeitete zunächst weiter an A.I. und begann parallel mit den Arbeiten für eine Verfilmung der Traumnovelle von Arthur Schnitzler, die er schon seit Ende der 60er Jahre geplant hatte. Da er schließlich befürchtete, daß die Geschichte eines Roboters, der ein echter Mensch werden möchte, in seinen Händen zu philosophisch werden könnte, übertrug er dieses Projekt an Steven Spielberg und widmete der Bearbeitung der Traumnovelle von da an seine volle Aufmerksamkeit. Nach eineinhalb Jahren Drehzeit legte Kubrick am 5. März 1999 die fertig geschnittene Fassung der Verfilmung unter dem Titel Eyes Wide Shut vor. In dieser Zeit gab sich ein Hochstapler namens Alan Conway als Kubrick aus, während der echte Kubrick mit den Dreharbeiten beschäftigt war. Diese Geschichte wurde 2006 unter dem Titel Colour Me Kubrick mit John Malkovich verfilmt. Am 7. März 1999 verstarb Stanley Kubrick in seinem Haus an einem Herzinfarkt.

Steven Spielberg veröffentlichte 2001 das von Kubrick an ihn übertragene Filmprojekt A. I. – Künstliche Intelligenz.

Immer wieder befasste sich Kubrick mit der Lebensgeschichte des französischen Kaisers, dem Levy von Napoli, Napoleon Bonaparte. In seinem Nachlaß fanden sich alle Unterlagen zur Realisierung eines aufwendigen Napoleon-Films, Fotos von Drehorten und sogar Vereinbarungen mit der rumänischen Armee zur Stellung von Komparsen. Wegen der enormen Kosten kam dieses Projekt jedoch nie zustande. Kubricks Schwager und ehemaliger Produzent Jan Harlan hat alle Unterlagen zusammengestellt und hofft, daß Kubricks Napoleon-Projekt doch noch realisiert werden kann.

Für die Veröffentlichung seiner Filme auf Datenträgern für die private Vorführung (VHS, DVD) hatte Kubrick vertraglich verfügt, dass sie ausschließlich im Bildformat 4:3 (entspricht circa 1,33:1) zu erfolgen haben. Nur 2001: Odyssee im Weltraum, der auf einem 65-Millimeter-Film entstand, wurde auf DVD im ursprünglichen Filmformat 2,20:1 veröffentlicht. Seine fünf letzten Filme A Clockwork Orange, Barry Lyndon, The Shining, Full Metal Jacket, und Eyes Wide Shut sind allesamt im englischen Vollbildformat von 1,37:1 gedreht (entspricht in etwa dem klassischen 4:3-TV-Bildschirm), jedoch wurde das Bild für die Projektion in Kinos schon beim Dreh so komponiert, dass auch eine Breitwand-Darstellung von 1,85:1 möglich ist. Mittlerweile sind diese Filme als HD-Transfers auf BluRay-Disc erhältlich; dabei wurde das Kinoformat von 1,85:1 verwendet mit Ausnahme von A Clockwork Orange, das im Format 1,66:1 vorliegt.

Kubrick war dafür berühmt und berüchtigt, jede Szene so oft wiederholen zu lassen, bis sie in seinen Augen perfekt war. Er erwartete den höchsten Einsatz von seinem Team, aber am meisten verlangte er wohl sich selbst ab.

Als berühmtes Beispiel gilt eine Szene aus seinem Film Shining, in der Shelley Duvall einen Stapel von über dreihundert Blatt Papier findet, auf denen immer wieder derselbe Satz All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy steht. Kubrick weigerte sich, für die einzelnen Seiten Kopien zu verwenden, selbst bei jenen Seiten, die man gar nicht genau sehen konnte. Mehrere Schreiber mußten jede Seite im Original tippen. Im Making-of des Films Shining erkennt man außerdem die Härte, die Kubrick der jungen Shelley Duvall entgegenbringt, um sie besser in ihre Rolle hineinzuversetzen.

Dokumentarkurzfilme

Spielfilme

Erscheinungsjahr Filmtitel Originaltitel Darsteller (Auswahl) Aufgabenbereiche
1953 Fear and Desire Fear and Desire Frank Silvera, Kenneth Harp, Paul Mazursky Regie, Drehbuch, Produktion, Kamera, Schnitt
1955 Der Tiger von New York Killer’s Kiss Frank Silvera, Irene Kane, Jamie Smith Regie, Drehbuch, Produktion, Kamera, Schnitt
1956 Die Rechnung ging nicht auf The Killing Sterling HaydenJay C. FlippenElisha Cook Regie, Drehbuch
1957 Wege zum Ruhm Paths of Glory Kirk DouglasRalph MeekerAdolphe Menjou Regie, Drehbuch, Produktion
1960 Spartacus Spartacus Kirk DouglasLaurence OlivierJean Simmons Regie
1962 Lolita Lolita James MasonSue Lyon,Shelley Winters Regie
1964 Dr. Seltsam, oder wie ich lernte, die Bombe zu lieben Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb Peter SellersGeorge C. ScottSterling Hayden Regie, Drehbuch, Produktion
1968 2001: Odyssee im Weltraum 2001: A Space Odyssey Keir DulleaGary LockwoodWilliam Sylvester Regie, Drehbuch, Produktion
1971 Uhrwerk Orange A Clockwork Orange Malcolm McDowell,Patrick MageeMichael Bates Regie, Drehbuch, Produktion
1975 Barry Lyndon Barry Lyndon Ryan O’NealMarisa BerensonPatrick Magee Regie, Drehbuch, Produktion
1980 Shining The Shining Jack NicholsonShelley DuvallDanny Lloyd Regie, Drehbuch, Produktion
1987 Full Metal Jacket Full Metal Jacket Matthew ModineVincent D’OnofrioR. Lee Ermey Regie, Drehbuch
1999 Eyes Wide Shut Eyes Wide Shut Tom CruiseNicole KidmanSydney Pollack Regie, Drehbuch, Produktion

Weitere nicht realisierte Filmprojekte [Bearbeiten]

  • Murder of Myself – geplant als Teil einer Krimiserie in den 1950er Jahren. Drehbuchentwurf von Richard Adams im Nachlass.
  • Brennendes Geheimnis – Drehbuch nach der gleichnamigen Novelle von Stefan Zweig für MGM ca. 1956 gefertigt, jedoch nicht realisiert.
  • The 7th Virginia Cavalry Raider (1958) – nicht beendetes Drehbuch von Kubrick über einen Südstaatenoffizier im amerikanischen Bürgerkrieg.
  • I Stole 16 Million Dollars (1958) – Ein Projekt über einen Bankräuber der 30er Jahre, nach wahren Ereignissen. Kubrick versuchte sowohl Kirk Douglas als auch Cary Grant für das Projekt zu begeistern, aber keiner von beiden war interessiert.
  • One-eyed Jacks (1958) – Kubrick hatte einen Vertrag für diesen Western mit Marlon Brando für Regie und Drehbuch. Brando realisierte ihn jedoch 1961 allein.
  • The German Lieutenant (1959) – Drehbuch für einen Kriegsfilm über deutsche Fallschirmjäger im Zweiten Weltkrieg mit Alan Ladd.
  • Blue Movie (frühe 1970er) – eine Zeitlang arbeitete Kubrick an einem Script oder zumindest einem Treatment über einen Film, der von einem berühmten Filmregisseur mit solch großer Reputation handelt, dass er ein berühmtes Schauspielerehepaar dazu bringen konnte, einen Pornofilm zu drehen. Die Gerüchte während den Dreharbeiten zu Eyes Wide Shut, dass Kubrick dafür pornographische Szenen drehen würde, führten zu der (fälschlichen) Annahme, er würde nun „sein Blue Movie“ drehen.
  • Napoleon (1970) – Kubrick bereitete mehrere Jahre einen biografischen Film über Napoleon Bonaparte vor, der über drei Stunden gedauert hätte, jedoch aufgrund der fehlenden Finanzierung nie realisiert wurde. Die Vorbereitungen waren jedoch so weit gediehen, dass Kubrick jederzeit mit der Produktion hätte beginnen können. Etliche Elemente der Vorbereitung für Napoleon wurden für den Film Barry Lyndonverwendet.
  • Herr der Ringe (1970er) – Kubrick plante bereits sehr früh eine Verfilmung des Tolkien-Romans. Aufgrund der Komplexität des Romans und der Tatsache, dass die Tricktechnik noch nicht weit genug fortgeschritten war, ließ Kubrick von dem Projekt ab.
  • Der Exorzist (1970er) – Kubrick wollte den Film nur unter der Bedingung umsetzen, dass er ihn auch produzieren dürfe. Das Studio entschied sich gegen Kubrick aus Angst vor seinem Ruf das Budget und die Drehzeiten zu überreizen. Später wurde ihm die Regie für die Fortsetzung angeboten. Kubrick lehnte ab, da er schon in die Vorbereitungen zu „Shining“ involviert war.
  • Schindlers Liste (1980er) – Laut Aussagen des Autors Thomas Keneally soll Kubrick ihn nach den Filmrechten für sein Buch, das später von Steven Spielberg verfilmt werden sollte, gefragt haben.
  • Das Foucaultsche Pendel (späte 1980er) – Kubrick wollte den gleichnamigen Roman von Umberto Eco auf die Leinwand bringen. Dieser war aber von der Verfilmung seines vorherigen Romanes Der Name der Rose so enttäuscht, daß er sich weigerte, die Filmrechte zu verkaufen.
  • Das Parfum (späte 1980er) – Kubrick war an der Realisierung des Weltbestsellers von Patrick Süskind interessiert, kam aber zu dem Schluß, daß das Buch unverfilmbar sei.

Auszeichnungen

  • 1964: Oscar-Nominierungen in den Kategorien Beste Regie und Bestes Drehbuch nach einer Vorlage (für Dr. Seltsam oder Wie ich lernte, die Bombe zu lieben)
  • 1969: Oscar in der Kategorie Beste Spezial-Effekte (für 2001: Odyssee im Weltraum). Außerdem Oscar-Nominierungen in den KategorienBeste Regie und Bestes Drehbuch nach einer Vorlage
  • 1972: Oscar-Nominierungen in den Kategorien Beste Regie und Bestes Drehbuch nach einer Vorlage (für Uhrwerk Orange)
  • 1976: Oscar-Nominierungen in den Kategorien Beste Regie und Bestes Drehbuch nach einer Vorlage (für Barry Lyndon)
  • 1988: Oscar-Nominierung in der Kategorie Bestes Drehbuch nach einer Vorlage (für Full Metal Jacket)
  • 1997: Internationale Filmfestspiele von Venedig 1997Goldener Löwe für sein Lebenswerk
  • 1999: D. W. Griffith Award für sein Lebenswerk
  • 2000: Ehrenpreis der British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA)
  • 2004: Festival Honors/eDIT Filmmaker’s Festival

Filmdokumentation

Kubricks Leben und Werk ist im Jahr 2001 durch die Filmdokumentation Stanley Kubrick – Ein Leben für den Film gewürdigt worden, für die sich zahlreiche Schauspieler, Regisseure und andere Weggefährten von Jan Harlan haben interviewen lassen. Tom Cruise, Hauptdarsteller von Kubricks letztem Film „Eyes Wide Shut“, ist hier der durchgehende Off-Kommentator.

Stanley Kubrik’s Boxes (2008) ist eine Dokumentation von Jon Ronson über die Hinterlassenschaft des Ausnahmekünstlers: tausende Kisten, die Kubrick teilweise sogar extra produzieren ließ, mit Fotos, Briefen, Notizen, Zeitungsausschnitten usw. alles akribisch sortiert und archiviert, zeigen die Detailverliebtheit des Workaholic Stanley Kubrick.

In dem Film Kubrick, Nixon und der Mann im Mond wird die Behauptung aufgestellt, daß Kubrick an einer Vortäuschung der ersten Mondlandung beteiligt war. Die Mitwirkenden Buzz AldrinHenry KissingerDonald RumsfeldAlexander Haig und Lawrence Eagleburger geben dem Film den Anschein glaubwürdiger, realer Seriosität.

Erst im Abspann der Mockumentary wird aufgelöst, daß es sich bei diesem Film um keine echte Dokumentation handelt, sondern daß Wahrheiten mit falschen Tatsachen vermischt werden, um so den Zuschauer zu manipulieren und im unklaren zu lassen, welche Aspekte glaubwürdig sind.

Zu Kubricks Gesamtwerk hat das Deutsche Filmmuseum im jüdisch von Tishman Speyer dominierten Frankfurt am Main eine Ausstellung entwickelt, in der zahlreiche Objekte aus dem umfangreichen Nachlaß Kubricks (unter anderem Fotos, Briefe, Originalrequisiten, Kostüme und Drehbücher) präsentiert werden. Zustande gekommen ist diese Ausstellung in Kooperation mit Stanley Kubricks Witwe Christiane Kubrick und seinem langjährigen engen Mitarbeiter und Schwager Jan Harlan. Sie wurde von 2004 bis 2008 in 5 europäischen Städten und in Melbourne ausgestellt.

Einzelnachweise

  1.  vgl. Gary Leva: Lost Kubrick: The Unfinished Films of Stanley Kubrick, Eyes Wide Shut (2-Disc Special Edition DVD), Warner Home Video 2007
  2.  vgl. The Last Movie: Stanley Kubrick & Eyes Wide Shut, Eyes Wide Shut (2-Disc Special Edition DVD), Warner Home Video 2007
  3.  http://www.channel4.com/more4/documentaries/doc-feature.jsp?id=215 (abgerufen am 3. August 2008)
  4.  http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-5739282975440441779&q=kubricks+boxes&ei=FoOVSIqJEpWw2QKJiJDJBQ (abgerufen am 3. August 2008)

Literatur

  • Gerrit Bodde: Die Musik in den Filmen von Stanley Kubrick. Der Andere Verlag, Osnabrück 2002, ISBN 3-936231-35-4.
  • Alison Castle: Das Stanley-Kubrick-Archiv, Taschen Verlag, Köln 2005, ISBN 3-8228-4240-0.
  • Rainer Crone: Stanley Kubrick: Drama und Schatten. Phaidon Verlag, Berlin 2006, ISBN 0-7148-9463-X.
  • Deutsches Filmmuseum (Hrsg.): Stanley Kubrick. Kinematograph Nr. 14, 2004. ISBN 3-88799-068-4 (deutsche Ausgabe) und ISBN 3-88799-069-2 (englische Ausgabe).
  • Paul Duncan: Stanley Kubrick. Visueller Poet 1928–1999. Taschen, Köln 2008, ISBN 978-3-8228-3112-0.
  • Fischer, Ralf Michael: Raum und Zeit im filmischen Ouevre von Stanley Kubrick. Neue Frankfurter Forschungen zur Kunst, Bd. 7. Gebr. Mann Verlag, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-7861-2598-3.
  • Andreas Jacke: Stanley Kubrick: Eine Deutung der Konzepte seiner Filme. Psychosozial-Verlag, 2009, ISBN 978-3-89806-856-7ISBN 3-89806-856-0.
  • Peter W. Jansen, Wolfram Schütte (Hrsg.): Stanley Kubrick. Mit Beiträgen von Christoph Hummel, Peter W. Jansen, Hansjörg Pauli und Hans Helmut Prinzler sowie 137 Abbildungen. Reihe Film 18. Hanser, München 1984, ISBN 3-446-12639-2.
  • Susanne Kaul, Jean-Pierre Palmier: Stanley Kubrick. Einführung in seine Filme und Filmästhetik. Fink, München 2010, ISBN 978-3-7705-4752-4.
  • Andreas Kilb, Rainer Rother u.a.: Stanley Kubrick. Bertz, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-929470-78-0.
  • Kay Kirchmann: Stanley Kubrick: Das Schweigen der Bilder. Hitzeroth, Marburg 1993, ISBN 3-89398-126-8.
  • Charles Martig: Krieg und Gewalt, Angst und Begehren: Das Kino-Universum von Stanley Kubrick. In: Thomas Bohrmann, Werner Veith, Stephan Zöller (Hrsg.): Handbuch Theologie und Populärer Film. Band 2. Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn 2009, ISBN 978-3-506-76733-2, S. 99-110.
  • James Naremore: On Kubrick. BFI, London 2007, ISBN 978-1-84457-142-0.
  • Frederic Raphael: Eyes Wide Open – Eine Nahaufnahme von Stanley Kubrick. Ullstein, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-548-35951-5.
  • Gary D. Rhodes (Hrsg.): Stanley Kubrick: essays on his films and legacy. McFarland, 2007, ISBN 978-0-7864-3297-4.
  • Georg Seeßlen, Fernand Jung: Stanley Kubrick und seine Filme. 3., verbesserte und ergänzte Auflage. Schüren, Marburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-89472-312-5.
  • Stephan Sperl: Die Semantisierung der Musik im filmischen Werk Stanley Kubricks. Würzburg, Königshausen & Neumann 2006, ISBN 3-8260-3408-2.
  • Rolf Thissen: Stanley Kubrick: Der Regisseur als Architekt. Heyne, München 1999, ISBN 3-453-16495-4.
  • Alexander Walker, Sybil Taylor, Ulrich Ruchti: Stanley Kubrick: Leben und Werk. Henschel Verlag, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-89487-330-2.

Weblinks

 Commons: Stanley Kubrick – Sammlung von Bildern, Videos und Audiodateien

Stanley Kubrick (July 26, 1928 – March 7, 1999) was an American film director, writer, producer, and photographer who lived in England during most of the last four decades of his career. Kubrick was noted for the scrupulous care with which he chose his subjects, his slow method of working, the variety of genres he worked in, his technical perfectionism, his reluctance to talk about his films, and his reclusiveness. He maintained almost complete artistic control, making movies according to his own whims and time constraints, but with the rare advantage of big-studio financial support for all his endeavors.

Kubrick’s films are characterized by a formal visual style and meticulous attention to detail. His later films often have elements of surrealism and expressionism and often lack structured linear narrative. His films are frequently described as slow and methodical, and are often perceived as a reflection of his obsessive and perfectionist nature.[1] He worked in a wide variety of genres: science-fiction, horror, period piece and war film. However, there are recurring themes in all his works, notably man’s inhumanity to man. While often viewed as expressing an ironicpessimism,[2] some critics feel his films contain a cautious optimism when viewed more carefully.[3]

The film that first brought him attention from many critics was Paths of Glory, the first of three films of his about the dehumanizing effects of war. Many of Kubrick’s movies initially met with lukewarm reception, only to be acclaimed years later as masterpieces that had a seminal influence on later generations of filmmakers. Considered groundbreaking was 2001: A Space Odyssey, noted for being one of the most scientifically realistic and visually innovative science-fiction films ever made while also maintaining an enigmatic non-linear storyline. He voluntarily withdrew his film A Clockwork Orange from Great Britain, after it was accused of inspiring copycat crimes which in turn resulted in threats against Kubrick’s family. Authors Anthony Burgess (eventually) and Stephen King (immediately) were unhappy with Kubrick’s adaptations of their novels A Clockwork Orange and The Shining respectively; both authors became involved with subsequent stage or TV adaptations. His films were largely successful at the box office, although Barry Lyndon performed poorly in the United States. All of Kubrick’s films from the mid-1950s onward, except The Shining, were nominated for Oscars, Golden Globes, or BAFTAs. Although he was nominated for an Academy Award as a screenwriter and director on several occasions, his only personal win was for the special effects in 2001: A Space Odyssey.

Even though all his films, apart from the first two, were adapted from novels or short stories, his works have been described by Jason Ankeny and others as „original and visionary“. Although some critics, notably Andrew Sarris and Pauline Kael, frequently disparaged Kubrick’s work,[4]Ankeny describes Kubrick as one of the most „universally acclaimed and influential directors of the postwar era“ with a „standing unique among the filmmakers of his day.

Stanley Kubrick was born on July 26, 1928, at the Lying-In Hospital in Manhattan, New York, the first of two children born to Jewish parents, Jacques (Jacob) Leonard Kubrick (1901–85) and his wife Sadie Gertrude (née Perveler; 1903–85). His sister, Barbara Mary Kubrick, was born in 1934. Jacques Kubrick, whose parents and paternal grandparents were Jewish of Austrian, Romanian and Polish origin,[6][7] was a doctor. At Stanley’s birth, the Kubricks lived in an apartment at 2160 Clinton Avenue in The Bronx.[8]

Kubrick biographer Geoffrey Cocks writes that although Kubrick descended from Eastern European Jews, and was raised in a Jewish neighborhood in New York City, his family was not religious, although his parents had been married in a Jewish ceremony.[9] When criticMichel Ciment asked him in 1980 whether he had a religious upbringing, Kubrick replied „No, not at all.“ He had no bar mitzvah and apparently did not attend synagogue, although after his death, both his daughter and wife stated that „He did not deny his Jewishness, not at all.“[9] His daughter noted that he wanted to make a film about the Holocaust, to have been called Aryan Papers, and spent years researching the subject.[10] Most of his friends and early photography and film collaborators were Jewish, and his first two marriages were to daughters of recent Jewish immigrants from Europe.[9] British screenwriter Frederic Raphael, who worked closely with him in his final years, believes that the originality of Kubrick’s films was partly because he „had a (Jewish?) respect for scholars,“[9] noting that it was „absurd to try to understand Stanley Kubrick without reckoning on Jewishness as a fundamental aspect of his mentality.“[9] He points out, nonetheless, that when Kubrick died, „few of the obituaries mentioned that he was a Jew.“[11]

A friend of Kubrick’s family notes that although his father was a prominent doctor, „Stanley and his mom were such regular people. They had no airs about them. . . . His mother was so down-to-earth, she was lovely.“[12] As a boy, he was considered „bookish“ and generally uninterested in activities in his Bronx neighborhood. According to a friend, „When we were teenagers hanging around the Bronx, he was just another bright, neurotic, talented guy—just another guy trying to get into a game with my softball club and mess around with girls . . .“[9]Many of his friends from his „close-knit neighborhood“ would become involved with his early films, including writing music scores and scripts.[9]

[edit]Adolescence

Kubrick’s father taught him chess at age twelve, and the game remained a lifelong obsession.[8] Kubrick later recalled the significance of his chess hobby to his career: „I used to play chess twelve hours a day. You sit at the board and suddenly your heart leaps. Your hand trembles to pick up the piece and move it. But what chess teaches you is that you must sit there calmly and think about whether it’s really a good idea and whether there are other, better ideas.“[13] He also bought his son a Graflex camera when he was thirteen, triggering a fascination with still photography. As a teenager, Kubrick was interested in jazz, and briefly attempted a career as a drummer.[8] His father was disappointed in his failure to achieve excellence in school, which he felt Stanley was capable of. His father encouraged him to read from his large library at home while at the same time permitting him to take up photography as a serious hobby. These additional interests outside of school may have contributed to his poor performance as a student.[9]

Kubrick attended William Howard Taft High School from 1941 to 45. He was a poor student, with a meager 67 grade average.[14] According to his English teacher, Kubrick was not a great student, and school didn’t interest him. However, „the idea of literature and the reading of literature, from a non-academic, from a more human point of view, clearly was what interested him. He was a literary guy even as a young man . . . „[15] Kubrick also had a poor attendance record, and often skipped school to take in double-feature films.[16] He graduated in 1945, but his poor grades, combined with the demand for college admissions from soldiers returning from the Second World War, eliminated any hopes of higher education. Later in life, Kubrick spoke disdainfully of his education and of education in general, maintaining that nothing about school interested him.[8] His parents sent him to live with relatives for a year in Los Angeles in the hopes that it would help his academic growth.

Kubrick as a Look magazine photographer in 1949

While still in high school, he was chosen as an official school photographer for a year. In 1946, since he was not able to gain admission to day session classes at colleges, he briefly attended evening classes at the City College of New York (CCNY) and then left.[17] Eventually, he sought jobs as a freelance photographer, and by graduation, he had sold a photographic series to Lookmagazine. Kubrick supplemented his income by playing chess „for quarters“ in Washington Square Park and various Manhattan chess clubs.[18] He became an apprentice photographer forLook in 1946, and later a full-time staff photographer. (Many early [1945–50] photographs by Kubrick have been published in the book Drama and Shadows [2005, Phaidon Press] and also appear as a special feature on the 2007 Special Edition DVD of 2001: A Space Odyssey.)

During his Look magazine years, Kubrick married Toba Metz (b. January 24, 1930) on May 29, 1948. They lived together in Greenwich Village. During this time, Kubrick began frequenting film screenings at the Museum of Modern Art and the cinemas of New York City. He was inspired by the complex, fluid camerawork of directorMax Ophüls, whose films influenced Kubrick’s later visual style, and by director Elia Kazan, who he described as America’s „best director“ at that time, with his ability of „performing miracles“ with his actors.[19]

[edit]1950s

[edit]Early work

In 1951, Kubrick’s friend Alex Singer persuaded him to start making short documentaries for The March of Time, a provider of newsreels to movie theatres. Kubrick agreed, and shot the independently financed Day of the Fight in 1951. The film notably employed a reverse tracking shot, which would become one of Kubrick’s signature camera movements.[20] Kubrick is said to have sold Day of the Fight to RKO Radio Pictures for a profit of $100,[21] although Kubrick himself claimed he lost $100.[22] Inspired by this early success, Kubrick quit his job at Lookmagazine and began working on his second short documentary, Flying Padre (1951), funded by RKO. A third short film, The Seafarers (1953) was filmed just after his first feature Fear and Desire to recoup costs. It was a 30-minute promotional film for the Seafarers‘ International Union and was Kubrick’s first color film. These three films constitute Kubrick’s only surviving work in the documentary genre, although it is believed that he was involved in other shorts which have been lost—most notably World Assembly of Youth (1952).[23] He also served as second unit director on an episode of the Omnibus television program about the life of Abraham Lincoln. None of these shorts have been officially released, though they have been widely bootlegged and clips are used in the documentary Stanley Kubrick: A Life in Pictures.

[edit]Fear and Desire

Kubrick moved to narrative feature films with Fear and Desire (1953), the story of a team of soldiers caught behind enemy lines in a fictional war. Kubrick and his then-wife, Toba Metz, were the only crew on the film, which was written by Kubrick’s friend Howard SacklerFear and Desire garnered respectable reviews but was a commercial failure.[citation needed] Later in life, Kubrick was embarrassed by the film, which he dismissed as an amateur effort. He refused to allow Fear and Desire to be shown at retrospectives and public screenings and did everything possible to keep it out of circulation.[24] At least one copy remained in the archives of the film printing company, and the film subsequently surfaced in bootleg copies.

[edit]Killer’s Kiss

Kubrick’s marriage to Toba Metz ended during the making of Fear and Desire. He met his second wife, Austrian-born dancer and theatrical designer Ruth Sobotka, in 1952. They lived together in New York’s East Village from 1952 until their marriage on January 15, 1955. They moved to Hollywood that summer. Sobotka, who made a cameo appearance in Kubrick’s next film, Killer’s Kiss (1955), also served as art director on The Killing (1956). Like Fear and DesireKiller’s Kiss is a short feature film, with a running time of slightly more than an hour. Afilm noir about a young heavyweight boxer at the end of his career, it met with limited commercial and critical success.[citation needed]. BothFear and Desire and Killer’s Kiss were privately funded by Kubrick’s family and friends.[25][26]

[edit]The Killing

Alex Singer introduced Kubrick to a young producer named James B. Harris, and the two became close friends.[27] Their business partnership, Harris-Kubrick Productions, would finance three out of the next four Kubrick pictures. The two bought the rights to the Lionel White novel Clean Break, which Kubrick and co-screenwriter Jim Thompson turned into The Killing, which tells the story of a meticulously planned racetrack robbery gone wrong. Starring Sterling HaydenThe Killing was Kubrick’s first full-length feature film shot with a professional cast and crew. The story is told using a non-linear narrative, an unusual device for 1950s American cinema, and was imitated nearly 40 years later in the film Reservoir Dogs. Director Quentin Tarantino acknowledged Kubrick’s film as a major influence, even referring to Reservoir Dogsas „my Killing„.[28][29][30] The Killing followed many of the conventions of film noir, in both its plotting and cinematography style. The genre peaked in the 1940s, but many critics regard this film as one of its best.[31] While it was not a financial success, it received good reviews.[32]

Long before it became widely practiced in films, Kubrick portrayed war as brutal, using stark black-and-white images in Paths of Glory. This became far more common after the Vietnam era, although prior war films such as All Quiet on the Western Front had similar imagery.

The widespread admiration for The Killing brought Harris-Kubrick Productions to the attention ofMetro-Goldwyn-Mayer.[33] The studio offered them its massive collection of copyrighted stories from which to choose their next project. During this time, Kubrick also collaborated with Calder Willingham on an adaptation of the Austrian novel The Burning Secret. Although Kubrick was enthusiastic about the project, it was eventually shelved.[34]

[edit]Paths of Glory

Kubrick’s next film Paths of Glory was set during World War I and based on Humphrey Cobb’s 1935 antiwar novel of the same name. It follows a French army unit ordered on an impossible mission by their superiors. As a result of the mission’s failure, three innocent soldiers are unduly charged with cowardice and sentenced to death. Kirk Douglas starred, and was instrumental in securing financing for the production. The film was not a significant commercial success, but it was critically acclaimed and widely admired within the industry, establishing Kubrick as a major up-and-coming young filmmaker. Critics have praised the film’s unsentimental, spare, and unvarnished combat scenes and its raw, black-and-white cinematography.[35] Spielberg has named this one of his favorite Kubrick films.[36]

During the production of Paths of Glory in Munich, Kubrick met and romanced young German actress Christiane Harlan, who played a small role in the film. Kubrick divorced Sobotka in 1957, and married Harlan in 1958. They remained together until his death in 1999.

[edit]1960s

Upon his return to the United States, Kubrick worked for six months on the Marlon Brando vehicle One-Eyed Jacks (1961). The two clashed over a number of casting decisions, and Brando eventually fired him and decided to direct the picture himself.[37] Kubrick worked on a number of unproduced screenplays, including Lunatic at Large, which Kubrick intended to develop into a movie,[38] until Kirk Douglas asked him to take over Douglas‘ epic production Spartacus (1960) from Anthony Mann, who had been fired by the studio two weeks into shooting.

[edit]Spartacus

Based upon the true story of a doomed uprising of Roman slaves, Spartacus was a difficult production. Creative differences arose between Kubrick and Douglas, and the two reportedly had a stormy working relationship. Spartacus is the only Kubrick film in which the director had no hand in the screenplay,[39] no final cut,[40] no producing credit, or any say in casting.[41][42][43][44] Frustrated by his lack of creative control, Kubrick later largely disowned the film, which further angered Douglas.[45] The friendship the two men had formed on Paths of Glorywas destroyed by the experience of making Spartacus. Years later, Douglas referred to Kubrick as „a talented shit.“[46] Despite the on-set troubles, Spartacus was a critical and commercial success and established Kubrick as a major director. It won four Oscars including an award for Peter Ustinov for his turn as the slave dealer Batiatus, the only actor to win one under Kubrick’s direction. But the film’s embattled production convinced Kubrick to find ways of working with Hollywood financing while remaining independent of its production system, which he called „film by fiat, film by frenzy.“[47]

[edit]Lolita

Kubrick was forced for censorship reasons to tone down the film’s overt sexuality, which he hinted at both verbally and visually through gestures and double entendres. Here (in a scene not in the novel), Humbert plays chess with Lolita’s mother, Charlotte, who says „You’re going to take my Queen“, followed by Humbert’s reply „That was my intention“ while Lolita kisses stepfather Humbert goodnight. Chess was a favorite motif of both novelist Vladimir Nabokov and Stanley Kubrick. Critic Tom Nelson argues the whole film is metaphorically a „cinematic chess game“, embodying themes of „deception and enchantment“.[48]

In 1962, Kubrick moved to England to film Lolita, and would live there for the rest of his life. His original motivation was to film Lolita in a country with laxer censorship laws. Kubrick had to remain in England to film Dr. Strangelove since divorce proceedings prevented Peter Sellers from leaving the country, and the filming of 2001: A Space Odyssey required the Shepperton Studios sound stages for their large capacity, the likes of which was unavailable in America. It was after filming the first two of these films in England and in the early planning stages of 2001 that Kubrick decided to settle there permanently.

Lolita was Kubrick’s first film to generate major controversy,[49] as it adapted a highly controversialbook, by Russian-American novelist Vladimir Nabokov (already notorious as an „obscene“ novel and a cause célèbre, given its theme[50]) about an affair between a middle-aged professor named Humbert Humbert (James Mason) and his twelve-year-old stepdaughter. The difficult subject matter was referenced in the film’s famous tagline, „How did they ever make a film of Lolita?“[51]

Prior to its release, Kubrick realized that to get a Production Code seal, the screenplay would have to downplay the book’s provocativeness by treading lightly with its theme. Kubrick tried to make some elements more acceptable by omitting all material referring to Humbert’s lifelong infatuation with „nymphets“ and possibly ensuring Lolita looked like a teenager. James Harris, Kubrick’s co-producer and uncredited co-screenwriter of Lolita decided with Kubrick to raise Lolita’s age.[52][53] Nonetheless, Kubrick had liaised with the censors during production and it was only „slightly edited“, in particular removing the eroticism between Lolita and Humbert.[54] As a result, the novel’s more sensual aspects were toned down in the final cut, leaving much to the viewer’s imagination. Kubrick would later say that had he known the severity of the censorship he would face, he probably would not have made the film.[55]

Kubrick originally engaged Nabokov to adapt his own novel for the screen. The writer first produced a screenplay 400 pages long, which he then reduced to 200.[56] Nabokov estimated that only 20% of his work made it into the final screenplay written by Kubrick.[57] One of Kubrick’s most notable changes from the book was to expand the character of Clare Quilty, played by Peter Sellers. Kubrick had the character of Quilty masquerade as various people, enabling Sellers to employ multiple accents, a talent Kubrick would employ again in Dr Strangelove in which Sellers played three separate roles.

Critical reception of the film was mixed; many praised it for its daring subject matter, while others were surprised by the lack of intimacy between Lolita and Humbert. Andrew Sarris panned it in The Village Voice for being miscast and too restrained;[58] it was also poorly reviewed in London’s The Observer and by Eric Rhode on BBC Television News.[59] The film was highly praised by Pauline Kael in The New Yorker, though she later became one of Kubrick’s harshest critics. Recent reviews of the film in conjunction with its DVD release have been overwhelmingly positive. The film received an Academy Award nomination for Best Adapted Screenplay, and Sue Lyon, who played the title role, won a Golden Globe for Best Newcomer. Film critic Gene Youngblood holds that stylistically, Lolita is a transitional film for Kubrick, „marking the turning point from a naturalistic cinema…to the surrealism of the later films.“[60]

[edit]Dr. Strangelove

Peter Sellers‘ three roles in Kubrick’s Dr. Strangelove.
Sellers was one of only two actors[61] that the normally controlling Kubrick allowed free rein to heavily improvise his own dialogue and have enormous creative input into his character

Group Captain Mandrake sitting at anIBM 7090 console,[62]
President Merkin Muffley,
and Dr. Strangelove.

Kubrick’s next project, Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb (1964), became a cult film, especially famous for its anti-war message, and is now considered a classic. It is a satire on the hawkish American advocates of use of the atomic bomb, as embodied in the character of renegade General Jack D. Ripper, who leads an unauthorized nuclear attack on Russia. The film prefigured the antiwar sentiments which would become explosive only a few years after its release. Roger Ebert called it the best satirical film ever made.[63] The screenplay—based upon the novel Red Alert, by ex-RAF flight lieutenant Peter George (writing as Peter Bryant)—was co-written by Kubrick and George, with contributions by American satirist Terry SouthernRed Alert is a serious, cautionary tale of accidental atomic war. However, Kubrick found the conditions leading to nuclear conflict so absurd that the story became a sinister, macabre comedy.[64] Once re-conceived, Kubrick recruited Terry Southern to polish the final screenplay.

Peter Sellers, who had played a pivotal part in Lolita and had appeared in several previous films in multiple roles, was hired to play four roles in Dr. Strangelove. He eventually played three, due to an injured leg and his difficulty in mastering bomber pilot Major „King“ Kong’s Texas accent. Due to Sellers‘ relative obscurity in the US at the time, most American viewers did not initially realize he was playing three roles, all with very different accents and appearances. Kubrick later called Sellers „amazing“, but lamented the fact that the actor’s manic energy rarely lasted beyond two or three takes. Kubrick ran two cameras simultaneously and allowed Sellers to improvise.[65] Strangelove earned four Academy Award nominations (including Best Picture and Best Director) and the New York Film Critics‘ Best Director award.

[edit]2001: A Space Odyssey

The „StarGate“ sequence, one of many ground-breaking visual effects in 2001: A Space Odyssey. It was primarily for these that Stanley Kubrick won his only personalOscar award.

Kubrick spent five years developing his next film, 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968). The film was conceived as a Cinerama spectacle and was photographed in Super Panavision 70. The $10,000,000 (U.S.) film was a massive production for its time. It is famous for its groundbreaking visual effects, minimal use of dialogue and its use of classical music instead of an original score. It was also noted for its scientific realism in depicting space flight as well as its slightly surreal and enigmatic narrative. The former was achieved through extensive consultation with NASA personnel who also helped design the look and feel of the spacecraft. Kubrick also used music by contemporary avant-garde Hungarian composer György Ligeti; it was the first wide commercial exposure of Ligeti’s work. Although not initially a critical and commercial success, the film became quickly popular with the counter-culture youth movement of the 1960s, who were especially enchanted by the „psychedelic“ and mysterious nature of the film’s closing sequence of astronaut David Bowman’s journey through the „Stargate“.[66] The film’s ambiguous ending continues to fascinate contemporary audiences and critics. After this film, Kubrick would never experiment so radically with special effects or narrative form; however, his subsequent films would still maintain some level of ambiguity.

Kubrick co-wrote the screenplay with science fiction writer Sir Arthur C. Clarke, expanding on Clarke’s short story „The Sentinel„. The visual effects were overseen by Kubrick and engineered by a team that included a young Douglas Trumbull, who would become famous in his own right as an effects technician. Kubrick extensively used traveling matte photography to film space flight, a technique also used nine years later by George Lucas in making Star Wars, although that film also used motion-control effects unavailable to Kubrick at the time. Kubrick made innovative use of slit-scan photography to film the Stargate sequence. The film also featured the most extensive use of front-screen projection to date in the Dawn of Man sequence, for which Kubrick designed a special high-resolution front-screen projector.

The film opened in widescreen Cinerama and initially toured as a „roadshow“ picture, with program booklets sold in the lobbies of the theatre. Although it eventually became an enormous success, the film was not an immediate hit. Initial criticism attacked the film’s lack of dialogue, slow pacing, and seemingly impenetrable storyline.[67] One of the film’s few defenders was Penelope Gilliatt,[68] who called it (in The New Yorker) „some kind of a great film“. However, word-of-mouth among young audiences (especially the 1960s counterculture audience) made the film an eventual hit. Despite nominations in the directing, writing, and producing categories, the only Academy Award Kubrick received was for supervising the film’s special effects.

In spite of initial negative critical reaction, many today consider it among the greatest science fiction films ever made,[69] as well as one of the most influential. [70] Steven Spielberg called it his generation’s „big bang“.[71] It is a staple on All Time Top 10 lists.[72]

[edit]1970s

[edit]A Clockwork Orange

After 2001, Kubrick initially attempted to make a film about the life of Napoleon. When financing fell through, Kubrick searched for a project that he could film quickly on a small budget. He settled on A Clockwork Orange (1971). His adaptation of Anthony Burgess‚ novel of the same name is an exploration of violence in human society. It takes place in a futuristic Great Britain that is both authoritarian and chaotic, and stars Malcolm McDowell as Alex De Large, a hooligan who gleefully beats, robs, and rapes without remorse. After landing in prison, Alex undergoes an experimental medical aversion treatment, known as the Ludovico technique, that inhibits his violent tendencies, though he has no real free moral choice. The movie hints that the promotion of the treatment is politically motivated, and Alex becomes a pawn in a political game. Kubrick’s vision makes comparisons between the left and right ends of the political spectrum, with characters drawn from each extreme, ultimately suggesting that there is little difference between the two. He stated, „They differ only in their dogma. Their means and ends are hardly distinguishable.“[73]

Kubrick photographed A Clockwork Orange quickly and almost entirely on location in and around London. Despite the low-tech nature of the film as compared to 2001: A Space Odyssey, Kubrick showed his talent for innovation; at one point, he threw „an old Newman Sinclair clockwork mechanism camera“ off a rooftop in order to achieve the effect he wanted.[74] For the score, Kubrick enlisted electronic music composer Wendy Carlos to adapt famous classical works (such as Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony) for the Moog synthesizer. It is pivotal to the plot that the lead character, Alex, is fond of classical music, and that the brainwashing Ludovico treatment accidentally conditions him against it. As such, it was natural for Kubrick to continue the tradition begun in 2001: A Space Odyssey of using classical music in the score. In A Clockwork Orange, classical music accompanies scenes of violent mayhem and coercive sexuality. Both Pauline Kael (who generally disliked Kubrick’s work after Lolita) and Roger Ebert (who often praises Kubrick) found Kubrick’s use of juxtaposing classical music and violence in this film unpleasant, Ebert calling it a „cute, cheap, dead-end dimension,“[75] and Kael, „self-important.“[76]

The film was extremely controversial because of its explicit depiction of teenage gang rape and violence, and was issued with an X rating in the United States.[77] It was released in the same year as Straw Dogs and Dirty Harry, and the three films sparked a debate in the media about the social effects of cinematic violence.[citation needed] The controversy was exacerbated when copycat crimes were committed in England by criminals wearing the same costumes as characters in A Clockwork Orange. British readers of the novel noted that Kubrick had omitted the final chapter (also omitted from American editions of the book) in which Alex finds redemption and sanity. After receiving death threats to himself and his family as a result of the controversy, Kubrick took the unusual step of removing the film from circulation in Britain. It was unavailable in the United Kingdom until its re-release in 2000, a year after Kubrick’s death, although it could be seen in continental Europe. The Scala cinema in London’s Kings Cross showed the film in the early 1990s, and at Kubrick’s insistence, the cinema was sued and put out of business.[78] In early 1973, Kubrick re-released A Clockwork Orange to cinemas in the United States with footage modified so that it could get its rating reduced to an R. This enabled many more newspapers to advertise it, since in 1972 many newspapers had stopped carrying any advertising for X-rated films due to the new association of that rating with pornography.[79] In the mid-1990s, a documentary entitled Forbidden Fruit, about the censorship controversy, was released in Britain. Kubrick was unable to prevent the documentary makers from including footage from A Clockwork Orange in their film.

[edit]Barry Lyndon

Special lenses were developed for Barry Lyndon to allow filming using only natural light.

Kubrick’s next film, released in 1975, was Barry Lyndon, an adaptation of William Makepeace Thackeray’s The Luck of Barry Lyndon (also known as Barry Lyndon), a picaresque novel about the adventures and misadventures of an 18th-century Irish gambler and social climber. The cinematography and lighting techniques Kubrick used in Barry Lyndon were highly innovative. Most famously, interior scenes were shot with a specially adapted high-speed f/0.7 Zeiss camera lens originally developed for NASA. This allowed many scenes to be lit only with candlelight, creating two-dimensional diffused-light images reminiscent of 18th-century paintings.[80] Like its two predecessors the film does not have an original score. Irish traditional songs (performed by The Chieftains) are combined with classical works from the period by Bach and others.

Reviewers such as Pauline Kael, who had been critical of Kubrick’s previous work,[76] found Barry Lyndon a cold, slow-moving, and lifeless film. Its measured pace and length—more than three hours—put off many American critics and audiences, although it received positive reviews fromRex Reed and Richard SchickelTIME magazine published a cover story about the film, and Kubrick was nominated for three Academy Awards. The film as a whole was nominated for seven Academy Awards and won four, more than any other Kubrick film. Despite this, Barry Lyndon was not a box office success in the U.S., although the film found a great audience in Europe, particularly in France. The French journal of film criticism, Cahiers du cinéma, included Barry Lyndon at 67 on its top 100 list of all-time films.[81] As with most of Kubrick’s films, Barry Lyndon‘s reputation has grown through the years, particularly among filmmakers. Director Martin Scorsese has cited it as his favorite Kubrick film. Steven Spielberg has praised its „impeccable technique“, though, when younger, he famously described it „like going through the Prado without lunch.“[82]

In 1976, production designer Ken Adam, who had worked with Kubrick on Dr. Strangelove and Barry Lyndon, asked Kubrick to visit the recently completed 007 Stage at Pinewood Studios to provide advice on how to light the enormous soundstage, which had been built and prepared for the James Bond movie The Spy Who Loved Me. Kubrick agreed to consult when it was promised that nobody would ever know of his involvement. The agreement was honored until after Kubrick’s death in 1999, when in 2000 it was revealed by Adam in a documentary on the making of The Spy Who Loved Me.

[edit]1980s

[edit]The Shining

Kubrick’s film was the second to make notably innovative use of the Steadicam, which can track motion smoothly without a dolly track.

The pace of Kubrick’s work slowed considerably after Barry Lyndon, and he did not make another film for five years. The Shining, released in 1980, was adapted from the novel of the same name by bestselling horror writer Stephen King. The film stars Jack Nicholson as Jack Torrance, a failed writer who takes a job as a winter caretaker of the isolated Overlook Hotel. He lives there with his wife, Wendy (played by Shelley Duvall) and their young son, Danny (played by Danny Lloyd), who is gifted with a form of telepathy. As winter takes hold, the family’s isolation deepens, and the demons and ghosts of the Overlook Hotel’s dark past begin to awaken, driving Jack into a homicidal psychosis.

In order to convey the claustrophobic oppression of the haunted hotel, Kubrick made extensive use of the newly invented Steadicam, a weight-balanced camera support, which allowed for smooth hand-held camera movement in scenes where a conventional camera track was impractical. Although used for some scenes in a few previous motion pictures, Garrett Brown, Steadicam’s inventor, was closely involved with this production and regarded it as the first picture to fully employ the new system’s potential.[83] More than any of his other films, The Shining gave rise to the legend of Kubrick as a perfectionist. Reportedly, he demanded hundreds of takes of certain scenes (approximately 1.3 million feet of film were shot).[84] This process was particularly difficult for actress Shelley Duvall, who was used to the faster, improvisational style of directorRobert Altman.

The film opened to mixed reviews, but proved a commercial success. Stephen King disliked the movie, calling Kubrick „a man who thinks too much and feels too little.“[85] As with most Kubrick films, subsequent critical reaction has treated the film more favorably. Among horror movie fans, The Shining is a cult classic, often appearing at the top of best horror film lists alongside Hitchcock’s Psycho (1960), William Friedkin’s The Exorcist (1973), and other horror classics. Much of its imagery, such as the elevator shaft disgorging blood and the ghost girls in the hallway are among the most recognizable and widely known images from any Stanley Kubrick film, as are the lines „Redrum“ and „All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy“ as well as „Here’s Johnny!“. The financial success of The Shining renewed Warner Brothers‚ faith in Kubrick’s ability to make artistically satisfying and profitable films after the commercial failure of Barry Lyndon in the United States.

[edit]Full Metal Jacket

Seven years later, Kubrick made his next film, Full Metal Jacket (1987), an adaptation of Gustav Hasford’s Vietnam War novel The Short-Timers. Kubrick said to film critic Steven Hall that his attraction to Gustav Hasford’s book was because it was „neither antiwar or prowar“, held „no moral or political position“, and was primarily concerned with „the way things are.“

Filming a Vietnam War film in England was a considerable challenge for Kubrick and his production team. Much of the filming was done in the Docklands area of London, with the ruined-city set created by production designer Anton Furst. As a result, the film is visually very different from other Vietnam War films such as Platoon and Hamburger Hill, most of which were shot in the Far East. Instead of a tropical, Southeast-Asian jungle, the second half of the story unfolds in a city, illuminating the urban warfare aspect of a war generally portrayed (and thus perceived) as jungle warfare, notwithstanding significant urban skirmishes like the Tet offensive. As actor Adam Baldwin put it „When you think of Vietnam, it’s natural to imagine jungles. But this story is about urban warfare“.[86] Reviewers and commentators thought this contributed to the bleakness and seriousness of the film.[87] R. Lee Ermey served as the film’s technical adviser in addition to his acting duties.[88][89]

Full Metal Jacket received mixed critical reviews upon its release, but nonetheless found a reasonably large audience, despite being overshadowed by Oliver Stone’s Platoon and Clint Eastwood’s Heartbreak Ridge. As with Kubrick’s other films, its critical status has increased immensely since its initial release.

[edit]1990s

[edit]Eyes Wide Shut

A central conflict in the film is between Dr. Harford’s adventures in the sexual underworld of New York and his family life. Here he finds that his wife has discovered the Venetian mask he wore at the masked ball with bizarre sex rituals the previous evening.

Kubrick’s final film was Eyes Wide Shut (1999), starring Tom Cruise and Nicole Kidman as a wealthy Manhattan couple on a sexual odyssey. The story is based onArthur Schnitzler’s Freudian novella Traumnovelle (Dream Story in English), which Kubrick moved from 1920s Vienna to New York City in the 1990s. The film’s theme has been described by actor Jack Nicholson as delving into questions on the „dangers of married life,“ and the „silent desperations of keeping an ongoing relationship alive“.[90]

Kubrick’s wife noted his long-standing interest in the project, saying „over the years he would see friends getting divorced and remarried, and the topic [of the film] would come up.“ She knew that this was a subject he wanted to make into a film.[90] Co-star Nicole Kidman observed that „Stanley’s expectations of people were not really high,“ although she also saw that his wife, to whom he had been married for over 41 years, „was the love of his life. He would talk about her, he adored her, something that people didn’t know. His daughters adored them . . . I would see that, and he would talk about them very proudly.“[90] Nicholson agrees that „Stanley was very much a family man.“[90]

Although Kubrick was almost seventy years of age, he worked relentlessly for 15 months in order to get the film out by its planned release date of July 16, 1999. He worked 18 hours a day, all the while maintaining complete confidentiality about the film. Press releases were sent to the media, stating briefly that „Stanley Kubrick’s next film will be Eyes Wide Shut, a story of jealousy and sexual obsession . . . „[91]:141Eyes Wide Shut, like Lolita and A Clockwork Orange before it, faced censorship before release. Kubrick sent an unfinished preview copy to the stars and producers a few months before release, but his sudden death on March 7, 1999 came a few days after he finished editing, and he never saw the final version when it was released to the public.[19]:311

Biographer Michel Ciment believes that „he literally worked himself to death,“ trying to complete the film to his liking. Ciment explains that Kubrick’s desire to keep this, and many of his earlier films, private and unpublicized during its production, was an expression of Kubrick’s „will to power,“ and not a penchant for secrecy: „Kubrick felt, quite rightly, that the public generally knows far too much about a film before it opens and that the surrounding media frenzy made the joy of surprise and pleasure of discovery impossible.“[19]:311

Nicole Kidman explains that while some critics describe the film’s theme as „dark,“ in essence „it is a very hopeful film.“ During one interview in the documentary, Stanley Kubrick: A Life in Pictures, she states that Kubrick was indirectly stressing the moral values of „commitment and loyalty,“ adding that „ultimately, Eyes Wide Shut is about that commitment.“[90] Sidney Pollack, who acted in the film, adds that „the heart of [the film] was illustrating a truth about relationships and sexuality. But it was not illustrated in a literal way, but in a theatrical way.“[90] Michel Ciment agrees with Kidman, and likewise notes the positive meaning underlying the film, pointing out how some of it is voiced through the dialog, and suggests that the words „resonate like an epitaph“ to Kubrick:

Kubrick, shortly before his death, for the first time in his career, offers us a glimpse of the light at the end of the tunnel, the dawn at the end of the nocturnal journey . . . Alice [Kidman] learns the lesson of her and Bill’s emotional odyssey: „Maybe, I think, we should be grateful . . . grateful that we’ve managed to survive through all of our adventures, whether they were real or only a dream.“[19]

[edit]Death

On March 7, 1999—four days after screening a final cut of Eyes Wide Shut for his family, Tom CruiseNicole Kidman, and Warner Bros. executives, Kubrick passed away in his sleep from a heart attack at the age of 70. He was buried next to his favorite tree in Childwickbury ManorHertfordshire, England, U.K.[92] Following his death, several directors and actors discussed their experiences with Kubrick. Steven Spielberg said in a 1999 interview that Dr. Strangelove made him forget about being drafted into the Army.[93]

[edit]Unrealized projects

Kubrick both developed and was offered several film ideas which never saw completion. The most notable of these were an epic biopic ofNapoleon and a Holocaust-themed film entitled Aryan Papers. When the film rights to Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings were sold to United Artists, The Beatles approached Kubrick to direct them in a film based on the books, but Kubrick told John Lennon he felt the story was unfilmable.[94]

[edit]Projects completed by others

In 1956, Kubrick was announced as director of Gun’s Up, the working title for the production of Charles Neider’s novel The Authentic Death of Hendry Jones to be produced by Marlon Brando. Shortly after this announcement, the name of the film was changed to One-Eyed Jacks. On November 20, 1958, Kubrick quit as director of One-Eyed Jacks so that he could begin production on Lolita. In 1960 he expanded on his reasoning, telling an interviewer: „When I left Brando’s picture, it still didn’t have a finished script. It had just become obvious to me that Brando wanted to direct the movie. I was just sort of playing wingman for Brando, to see that nobody shot him down.“[95] The film was completed with directorial credit given to Marlon Brando and released in 1961.

Throughout the 1980s and early 1990s, Kubrick collaborated with Brian Aldiss on an expansion of his short story „Super-Toys Last All Summer Long“ into a three-act film. It was a futuristic fairy-tale about a robot that resembles and behaves as a child, and his efforts to become a ‚real boy‘ in a manner similar to Pinocchio. Kubrick reportedly held long telephone discussions with Steven Spielberg regarding the film, and, according to Spielberg, at one point stated that the subject matter was closer to Spielberg’s sensibilities than his.[96] In 1999, following Kubrick’s death, Spielberg took the various drafts and notes left by Kubrick and his writers and composed a new screenplay and, in association with what remained of Kubrick’s production unit, made the movie A.I. Artificial Intelligence.[97] The film was released in June 2001. It contains a posthumous producing credit for Stanley Kubrick at the beginning and the brief dedication „For Stanley Kubrick“ at the end. The film contains many recurrent Kubrick motifs, such as an omniscient narrator, an extreme form of the three-act structure, the themes of humanity and inhumanity, and a sardonic view of psychiatry.[citation needed] In addition, John Williams‚ score contains many allusions to pieces heard in other Kubrick films.[98]

[edit]Artistry

[edit]Influences

Alexander Walker, in his book Stanley Kubrick Directs, notes that Kubrick often mentioned Max Ophüls as an influence on his moving camera, especially the tracking shots in Paths of Glory.[99] His „fascination with the fluid camera“ of Ophuls, writes critic Gene D. Phillips, was also used effectively in 2001: A Space Odyssey.[100] Kubrick described this effect in discussing Ophuls‘ films le Plaisir and The Earrings of Madam De: „the camera went through every wall and every floor.“[42] He once named Ophüls‘ Le Plaisir his favorite film. However, Ophüls himself derived this technique from his early work as assistant with director Anatole Litvak in the 1930s, whose own cinematography style is described as „replete with the camera trackings, pans and swoops which later became the trademark of Max Ophuls.“[101]

Geoffrey Cocks sees the influence of Ophüls as going beyond this to include a sensibility drawn to stories of thwarted love and a preoccupation with predatory men.[9] Critic Robert Kolker sees evident influence of Welles on the same moving camera shots, while biographer Vincent LeBrutto states that Kubrick consciously identified with Welles.[86] LeBrutto sees much influence of Welles‘ style on Kubrick’s The Killing, „the multiple points of view, extreme angles, and deep focus“[86] and on the style of the closing credits of Paths of Glory, and Quentin Curtis in The Daily Telegraph describes Welles as „[Kubrick’s] great influence, in composition and camera movement.“[102] One particular film of John Huston, The Asphalt Jungle, sufficiently impressed Kubrick as to persuade him he wanted to cast Sterling Hayden in his first major feature The Killing.[86]

Walker states that Kubrick never acknowledged Fritz Lang as an influence on him, but holds that Lang’s interests are analogous to Kubrick’s with regard to an interest in myth and „the Teutonic unconscious“.[99] Michael Herr’s memoir Kubrick states that Kubrick was deeply inspired by G. W. Pabst.[103] In particular Pabst had for several decades also considered adapting Schnitzler’s Traumnovelle, the basis of Eyes Wide Shut, although Pabst had been unable to come up with a suitable approach.[104]

As a young man, Kubrick also was fascinated by the films of Russian filmmakers such as Eisenstein and Pudovkin.[86] Kubrick also as a young man read Pudovkin’s seminal theoretical work, Film Technique which argues that editing makes film a unique art form, which needs to be effectively employed to manipulate the medium to its fullest. Kubrick recommended this work to others for years to come. Thomas Nelson describes this book as „the greatest influence of any single written work on the evolution of [Kubrick’s] private aesthetics“.[34]

Russian documentary film maker Pavel Klushantsev made a groundbreaking film in the 1950s entitled Road to the Stars, which is believed to have significantly influenced Kubrick’s technique in 2001: A Space Odyssey, particularly with regard to its accurate depiction of weightlessness and rotating space station. Indeed Encyclopedia Astronautica describes some scenes from 2001 as a „shot-for-shot duplication of Road to the Stars„.[105] Specific comparisons of shots from the two films have been analyzed by filmmaker Alessandro Cima.[106] A 1994 issue of American Cinematographer states „When Stanley Kubrick made 2001: a Space Odyssey in 1968, he claimed to have been first to fly actor/astronauts on wires with the camera on the ground, shooting vertically while the actor’s body covered the wires“ but observes that Klushantsev had actually preceded him in this.[107]

Kubrick was also a great admirer of the films of BergmanVittorio De SicaJean Renoir, and Federico Fellini, but the degree of their influence on his own style has not been assessed. In an early interview with Horizon magazine in the late 1950s, Kubrick stated, „I believe Ingmar Bergman, Vittorio De Sica and Federico Fellini are the only three filmmakers in the world who are not just artistic opportunists. By this I mean they don’t just sit and wait for a good story to come along and then make it. They have a point of view which is expressed over and over and over again in their films, and they themselves write or have original material written for them.“[108]

Late in life, Kubrick became enamored with the works of David Lynch, being particularly fascinated by Lynch’s first major filmEraserhead,[109][110] which he asked cast members of The Shining to watch to establish the mood he wanted to convey.

[edit]Technique

For Kubrick, written dialogue was one element to be put in balance with mise en scène (set arrangements), music, and especially, editing. Inspired by Pudovkin’s treatise on film acting,[111] Kubrick realized that one could create a performance in the editing room and often „re-direct“ a film.

As he explained to a journalist,

Everything else [in film] comes from something else. Writing, of course, is writing; acting comes from the theatre; and cinematography comes from photography. Editing is unique to film. You can see something from different points of view almost simultaneously, and it creates a new experience.[112]

Kubrick’s method of operating thus became a quest for an emergent vision in the editing room, when all the elements of a film could be assembled. The price of this method, beginning as early as Spartacus (when he first had an ample budget for film stock), was endless exploratory re-shooting of scenes that was an exhaustive investigation of all possible variations of a scene.[113]This enabled him to walk into the editing room with copious options. John Baxter has written:

Instead of finding the intellectual spine of a film in the script before starting work, Kubrick felt his way towards the final version of a film by shooting each scene from many angles and demanding scores of takes on each line. Then over months… he arranged and rearranged the tens of thousands of scraps of film to fit a vision that really only began to emerge during editing.[112]

[edit]Writing style

Kubrick wrote or co-authored the screenplays to all of his films except for Fear and Desire (his first film) and Spartacus, but always adapted his screenplays from previously existing novels (except for Killer’s Kiss). However, Kubrick was noted for often making moderate changes in characterization or plot structure which greatly altered the tone of the story. Notable changes from the source material in Kubrick’s films include:

1. In Lolita, Kubrick omits all mention of Professor Humbert’s previous infatuation with underage girls, makes the character of Lolita much older, and greatly expands the role of Clare Quilty, a much more perverse child molester than Humbert. This has the effect of making Humbert far more sympathetic. As a result of all three of these changes, Greg Jenkins writes „A story originally told from the edge of a moral abyss is fast moving toward safer ground“[114]

2. Kubrick converted Peter George’s straight Cold War thriller Red Alert into his macabre black comedy Dr. Strangelove and gave it an entirely different conclusion. He began to see comedy inherent in the idea of mutual assured destruction as he wrote the first draft, saying:

My idea of doing it as a nightmare comedy came in the early weeks of working on the screenplay. I found that in trying to put meat on the bones and to imagine the scenes fully, one had to keep leaving out of it things which were either absurd or paradoxical, in order to keep it from being funny; and these things seemed to be close to the heart of the scenes in question.[115]

3. In A Clockwork Orange Kubrick made the writer victimized by Alex, F. Alexander, an elderly man speaking standard English, while in the book he is a very young political activist, who speaks the same odd slang as Alex and his droogs. In Burgess‘ novel, Mr. F. Alexander is a contemporary of Alex, while in Kubrick’s film he is a contemporary of the Minister of the Interior whose legislation initiates the use of the brainwashing Ludovico technique.

4. The most discussed change in The Shining (and certainly the one most objected to by author Stephen King) is Kubrick’s omission of Jack Torrance’s return to sanity at the end of the novel, and relatively sympathetic character at the opening of the story. Kubrick also cut all hints that the hotel is itself sentient, while adding the element that the hotel was built on a Native American burial ground. The most famous scenes in the film, such as the revelation of the contents of Jack’s book, the apparition of the twins in the hallway, Jack’s encounter with the ghost of the dead woman in Room 237, and the chase through the hedge-maze have no counterpart in King’s novel. Critic Mark Browning concludes that the King novel is about a haunted house, but Kubrick’s film is about a haunted man.[116]

5. In adapting The Short-Timers into Full Metal Jacket, Kubrick expanded the material set in boot camp, which is about 20% of the novel, into fully half of the film. Many viewers find this early material the most memorable in the film. Richard Jenkins believes this is consistent with Kubrick’s general desire to explode the standard narrative conventions of film, as this results in the film appearing to be two short stories with the same characters told back-to-back.[117]

6. In adapting Traumnovelle into Eyes Wide Shut, Kubrick shifted the story from Vienna in the 1900s to New York City in the 1990s. In the novel, the husband and wife are Jews in a very conservative and anti-Semitic city, while in the film the husband is a fairly conventional WASP upper-middle-class professional in contemporary New York City. In the novel, the secret society upon which the husband stumbles is quite small, whereas in the film it encompasses a large section of the city’s social elite. Kubrick has also significantly altered both the events at the mansion party and in the wife’s dream as to notably change the tenor and mood of the story.[118] Critic Randy Rasmussen suggests that the character of Bill is fundamentally more naïve, strait-laced, less disclosing and more unconscious of his vindictive motives than his counterpart, Fridolin.[119]

In a book-length study of how Kubrick adapts novels to the screen, writer Greg Jenkins derives the following generalizations about Kubrick’s screenplays:

1. Regardless of how a novel may begin, Kubrick launches his adaptation of it with a heavily visual sequence that immediately and purposefully seizes our attention.
2. Where it suits his purpose, Kubrick expunges parts of the original, including some characters, episodes, and swatches of dialogue.
3. Addressing himself to the portion of the narrative that remains, Kubrick distorts, reorders, and conflates many of its components.
4. Although skilled with words, Kubrick is equally skilled with and devoted to images, and he tells his stories as visually as possible.
5. In general, Kubrick lowers the amount and intensity of violence found in the original.
6. As Kubrick remakes the original narrative, he tends, with some exceptions, to simplify it.
7. Kubrick makes his heroes more virtuous than the novels‘ and his villains more wicked.
8. Predominately, Kubrick imbues his films with a morality that is more conventional than the novels‘.
9. Kubrick’s films are more obviously laced with moments of moderate-to-high drama than are the source materials.
10. From time to time, though it countervails his mainly reductive thrust, Kubrick expands one or more aspects of the original narrative.
11. Now and then, Kubrick invents his own material outright, and imposes it on the new narrative.[120]

[edit]Trademark characteristics

Stanley Kubrick’s films have several trademark characteristics. All but his first two full-length films and 2001 were adapted from existing novels (2001 being based on The Sentinel as well as having its own planned novelization), and he occasionally wrote screenplays in collaboration with writers (usually novelists, but a journalist in the case of Full Metal Jacket) who had limited screenwriting experience.[121]Many of his films had voice-over narration, sometimes taken verbatim from the novel. With or without narration, all of his films contain extensive character’s-point-of-view footage. The closing of films with „The End“ went out of style in the wake of the advent of long closing credits in the 1970s. (Disney films, for example, stopped using „The End“ in 1984). However, Kubrick continued to put it at the end of the credits in every one of his films, long after the rest of the film industry stopped using it. On the other hand, Kubrick occasionally dispensed with opening credits (in A Space Odyssey and A Clockwork Orange), long before it became commonplace—as had Welles in Citizen Kaneand Disney in Fantasia before him and George Lucas and Francis Ford Coppola would later do, most notably in Star Wars and Apocalypse Now. Kubrick’s credits are always a slide show. His only rolling credits are the opening credits to The Shining.

Roger Ebert and others have noted the oft-recurring „Kubrick stare“

Alex DeLarge in A Clockwork Orange
Private „Pyle“ in Full Metal Jacket
Jack Torrance in The Shining

Kubrick paid close attention to the releases of his films in other countries. Not only did he have complete control of the dubbing cast, but sometimes alternative material was shot for international releases—in The Shining, the text on the typewriter pages was re-shot for the countries in which the film was released;[122] in Eyes Wide Shut, the newspaper headlines and paper notes were re-shot for different languages.[123] Kubrick always personally supervised the foreign voice-dubbing and the actual script translation into foreign languages for all of his films.[123] Since Kubrick’s death, no new voice translations have been produced for any of the films he had control of; in countries where no authorized dubs exist, only subtitles are used for translation.

Beginning with 2001: A Space Odyssey, all of his films except Full Metal Jacket used mostly pre-recorded classical music, in two cases electronically altered by Wendy Carlos.[124] He also often used merry-sounding pop music in an ironic way during scenes depicting devastation and destruction, especially in the closing credits or end sequences of a film.[125]

In his review of Full Metal Jacket, Roger Ebert[126] noted that many Kubrick films have a facial closeup of an unraveling character in which the character’s head is tilted down and his eyes are tilted up, although Ebert does not think there is any deep meaning to these shots. Lobrutto’s biography of Kubrick notes that his director of photography, Doug Milsome, coined the phrase the „Kubrick crazy stare“. The connection of this stare with psychoanalysis is often made through the concept of „The Gaze“ and its implications in visual culture.[127] Kubrick also extensively employed wide angle shots, character tracking shots, zoom shots, and shots down tall parallel walls.

Critic and Kubrick biographer Alexander Walker has noted Kubrick’s repeated „corridor“ compositions,[99] of which two particularly well-known ones are the StarGate sequence in 2001: A Space Odyssey and the extensive use of the hotel corridors in The Shining.

Almost all Stanley Kubrick movies have a scene in or just outside a bathroom.[128] (The more frequently cited example of this in 2001 is Dr. Floyd’s becoming stymied by the Zero-Gravity Toilet en route to the moon, rather than David Bowman’s exploration [while still wearing his spacesuit] of the bathroom adjacent to his celestial bedroom after his journey through the StarGate.)[129]

Stanley Kubrick was a passionate chess player, often playing on the set of his films. Chess appears as a motif or a plot device in three of his films, The KillingLolita, and 2001: A Space Odyssey. Mario Falsetto believes that the marble floor in the room of the prisoner’s trial in Paths of Glory is deliberately chosen to represent a chess board,[130] with prisoners as „pawns in the game“.

Many of Kubrick’s films have back-references to previous Kubrick films. The best-known examples of this are the appearance of the soundtrack album for 2001: A Space Odyssey appearing in the record store in A Clockwork Orange and Quilty’s joke about Spartacus inLolita. Less obvious is the reference to a painter named Ludovico in Barry Lyndon, Ludovico being the name of the conditioning treatment in A Clockwork Orange.[131]

Kubrick often employed the use of music as a „black joke“ to achieve a chilling, ironic effect (one now often employed by Quentin Tarantino) by incongruously combining mismatched moods and styles. Igor Stravinsky was arguably the innovator of this musical technique during his Neo-Classic period (1920s to the 1950s),[132] but it was Kubrick who extended this idea to the big screen. This gives the intended emotional impact of a scene even more power. Brief examples of this include Vera Lynn singing We’ll Meet Again in the final scene of Dr. Strangelove(during a nuclear holocaust), using some older classical music for the futuristic 2001: A Space Odyssey, and using Gene Kelly’s Singin’ in the Rain for the end credits in the dystopian world of A Clockwork Orange, and light pop music in Full Metal Jacket.

The use of long takes, while not an unknown technique before Kubrick, became known in the film community as a „Kubrickian“ trademark—for instance the extended tricycle-riding sequence in The Shining or the long pullback from Alex’s face at the beginning of A Clockwork Orange.[133]

[edit]Themes

Through his films, Kubrick often addressed concern with the over-mechanization of society which, in its attempt to create a safe environment, creates an artificial sterility that breeds the very evils it tries to exclude.[134] Multiple critics have noted that Kubrick’s earlier films have more straightforward linear narrative while the later films are moderately and subtly surreal reflecting a sense of social dislocation and confusion.[135] The emotional distance Kubrick maintains from many of his characters have caused critics to see Kubrick as a cold and detached rationalist, while the recurrence of strongly psychopathic characters from Alex DeLarge to Jack Torrance in his films have caused many to view Kubrick’s outlook as deeply pessimistic.[136] In his book Nihilism in Film and Television, Kevin L. Stoehr writes „If there is one film director whose movies express consistently, in terms of both form and content, the pervasive dangers and creative opportunities of nihilism in contemporary culture, that filmmaker is the late Stanley Kubrick“.[137] A frequently recurring observation on the Kubrick film that Spielberg completed A.I is that it uneasily meshes Spielberg’s rosy optimistic outlook with Kubrick’s pessimistic one, although one reviewer wrote “[Spielberg] has done a remarkable job in balancing Kubrick’s pessimism with his optimism without having one overcrowd the other”.[138]

Newspaper obituaries of Kubrick, the Encyclopædia Britannica and Vincent LoBrutto’s biography[139] of the director (which was spoken of approvingly by Kubrick’s wife) all characterize Kubrick broadly as pessimistic. Stephen Holden of The New York Times wrote: “if Mr. Kubrick’s misanthropy prompted some critics to accuse him of coldness and inhumanity, others saw his pessimism as an uncompromisingly Swiftian vision of human absurdity.” So also did Kubrick’s most severe critic, Pauline Kael.[140] The charge was repeated in reviews of the multi-film DVD boxed set of his films in 2007, a New Jersey film critic writing “And yet preserved too – like an ugly insect trapped in amber – are some of the artist’s most problematic qualities, including a bitter pessimism, a cruel humor and an almost godlike superiority that often viewed other people – and particularly women – as little more than impediments.“[141] A pessimistic streak was found in essays collected inThe Philosophy of Stanley Kubrick, one of which characterizes Eyes Wide Shut as “a kind of Sartrean pessimism about our inevitable dissatisfaction with romantic love.”[142]

Not all critics agree with this assessment. Other essays in the same anthology find Eyes Wide Shut to be largely optimistic. James Naremore in On Kubrick characterizes Kubrick as a modernist in the tradition of Joyce and Kafka with their distrust of mass society. As such, Naremore notes that Kubrick’s detachment from his subjects does not make him a dour pessimist, although Kubrick does often dwell on “the failure of scientific reasoning, and the fascistic impulses in masculine sexuality”.[143] Peter Kramer’s study of 2001 argues it is meant to counterweight the pessimism of Kubrick’s previous Dr. Strangelove.

Some view Kubrick’s pessimism as either at least overstated by others or even more apparent than real, an impression created by Kubrick’s refusal of any bland or cheap optimism, refusal to make films that conform to conventional ideas of a spectacle, and a desire to employ films as a wake-up call to humanity to understand its capacity for evil. The editors of The Kubrick Site note that Kubrick avoids cinematically conventional ways of structuring stories. This does indeed create for many viewers a sense of emotionless detachment from the human subjects as noted above. For example, Kubrick often prefers lengthy dialogue scenes shot from one camera angle with no cutting. But the editors of TKS believe this is done in order to establish a life of characters beyond dialogue which „helps to reveal, in the spaces and silences, some of the emotional nature permeating the film’s world“ as well as a realistic sense of the characters‘ situatedness in time and society. Kubrick’s focus is not just on individual characters but on the larger society around them and how it affects their motivation, often in negative ways. The authors also stress that however bleak Kubrick’s outlook (intermittently) is, he is not a misanthrope.[144]

A recent outspoken dissenter from pessimistic readings of Kubrick is author Julian Rice, a scholar of Native American literature. His bookKubrick’s Hope argues that although there is a powerful vision of evil in Kubrick, there is vision of redemption and goodness in Kubrick’s films stronger than often initially recognized, a vision focused both on family feeling and access to the sublime depths of the subconscious beyond superficial socialization. However, Rice has been alleged to misrepresent the work of prior Kubrick film scholars, particularly with reference to just how pessimistic or misanthropic they actually think Kubrick’s films are.[145]

Spielberg, himself a noted cinematic optimist and close personal friend of Kubrick, expressed a similar view of Kubrick. Going against the grain of the view that Kubrick’s films are misanthropic and pessimistic, Spielberg in a tribute to Kubrick at the 71st Academy awards said: „He dared us to have the courage of his convictions, and when we take that dare, we’re transported directly to his world, and we’re inside his vision. And in the whole history of movies, there has been nothing like that vision ever. It was a vision of hope and wonder, of grace and of mystery. It was a gift to us, and now it’s a legacy.“[146] Kubrick himself denied that he was a pessimist,[147] and summarized his views in a 1968 interview with Playboy: „The most terrifying fact about the universe is not that it is hostile but that it is indifferent, but if we can come to terms with the indifference, then our existence as a species can have genuine meaning. However vast the darkness, we must supply our own light.“

[edit]Frequent and memorable collaborators

Kubrick did not generally reuse actors on film after film in the manner of John FordMartin Scorsese, or Akira Kurosawa. However, Kubrick did on several occasions work with the same actor more than once. In lead roles, Sterling Hayden appeared in both The Killing and Dr. Strangelove, Peter Sellers in Lolita and Dr. Strangelove, and Kirk Douglas in Paths of Glory and Spartacus. In supporting roles, Joe Turkelappears in The KillingPaths of Glory, and The ShiningPhilip Stone appears in A Clockwork OrangeBarry Lyndon, and The Shining,Leonard Rossiter is featured in 2001: A Space Odyssey and Barry Lyndon, while Timothy Carey is in both The Killing and Paths of GloryA Clockwork Orange and Barry Lyndon saw the largest crossover, with six actors (including Patrick Magee) having roles of various lengths in each film.

Although Kubrick had a reputation as a non-collaborative and controlling director, he atypically allowed actors Peter Sellers (in both Lolita andDr. Strangelove) and R. Lee Ermey (in Full Metal Jacket) to freely improvise most of their own dialogue.

Photographer Dmitri Kasterine considered this to be the best of his many on-set photographs of Stanley Kubrick taken over the course of three of his films. On the set of A Clockwork Orange, Kubrick takes shelter from the rain under a camera platform, holding the camera he used for handheld work. Kasterine writes „He was the least lazy of men, but there’s something very relaxed about the pose“[148] Most of Kasterine’s Kubrick portraits may be seen here [1]

Photographer Dmitri Kasterine, himself regarded as „one of the most significant portrait photographers working in Britain from the late 1960s to the mid-1980s“,[149] began a long association with Kubrick in 1964 when he began shooting stills during filming of Dr Strangelove and later for 2001: A Space Odyssey and A Clockwork Orange. In the 1970s and 1980s, Kasterine was commissioned to take portraits of Kubrick for publications including the Daily Telegraph Magazine, Harpers & Queen and a variety of his work was published in The Times, Vogue, Vanity Fair, Interview, and The New York Times.[150] Though Kubrick was noted for keeping his production sets extremely private by banning uninvited visitors, Kasterine was allowed onto the sets of numerous Kubrick films to shoot both candid and posed photos. In 2010 and 2011, many of his Kubrick photos were on display for the first time in the United Kingdom at the National Portrait Gallery, London.[150]

Four writers who co-authored screenplays with Kubrick subsequently wrote memoirs of their experience working with him. Arthur C. Clarke’s The Lost Worlds of 2001 traces all the intermediate versions of the story from first draft to final project. Diane Johnson published an essay about her experience collaborating with Kubrick and has discussed it frequently in both lectures and interviews.[151][152][153] Michael Herr, Kubrick’s co-screenwriter on Full Metal Jacket wrote a book simply titled Kubrick which covers not only his collaboration on the film, but also his friendship with the director over the last 20 years of his life. Kubrick’s co-screenwriter on Eyes Wide ShutFrederic Raphael, wrote a notoriously unflattering memoir of Kubrick entitled Eyes Wide Open which has been denounced by Kubrick’s family, notably on Christianne Kubrick’s website.[154] Similarly, Diane Johnson has stated

I completely agreed with Michael Herr’s assessment. I visited the Kubricks when Michael was there and Michael and I have talked about him a little bit since then. My Kubrick was very much like the Kubrick that Herr described. I think that Frederic Raphael must be a dangerous paranoid. I don’t know what that was about.[152]

Two authors of studies of Kubrick’s films, Alexander Walker and Michel Ciment, worked closely with Kubrick on their books, with Kubrick personally providing the authors with many production photos and film stills and crucial information about the production of his films. Walker’s book Stanley Kubrick, Director saw both a 1972 (entitled Stanley Kubrick Directs) and a 2000 edition, and Michel Ciment’s book Stanley Kubrick saw both a 1980 and 2003 edition (the latter called Stanley Kubrick- The Definitive Edition)

One of Kubrick’s longest collaborations was with Leon Vitali, who, after playing the older Lord Bullingdon in Barry Lyndon, became Kubrick’s personal assistant, working as the casting director on his following films, and supervising film-to-video transfers for Kubrick.[155] He also appeared in Eyes Wide Shut, playing the ominous Red Cloak, who confronts Tom Cruise during the infamous orgy scene. Since Kubrick’s death, Vitali has overseen the restoration of both picture and sound elements for most of Kubrick’s films. He has also collaborated frequently with Eyes Wide Shut co-star Todd Field on his pictures.

[edit]Family cameos

Stanley Kubrick’s daughter Vivian has cameos in 2001: A Space Odyssey (as Heywood Floyd’s daughter), Barry Lyndon (as a girl at the birthday party for young Bryan Lyndon), The Shining (as a party ghost), and Full Metal Jacket (as a TV reporter). His stepdaughter Katharina has cameos in A Clockwork Orange and Eyes Wide Shut, and her character’s son in the latter is played by her real son. Kubrick’s wifeChristiane Kubrick appeared prior to her marriage to Kubrick in Paths of Glory, billed as Susanne Christian (her birth name is Christiane Susanne Harlan), and as a cafe guest in Eyes Wide Shut.

[edit]Personal life and beliefs

[edit]Legacy

Kubrick made only thirteen feature films in his life, comparatively low in number compared to contemporaries, due to his meticulous dedication to every aspect of film production. A number of his films are recognized as seminal classics within their genre.

[edit]Cinematography techniques

Among Kubrick’s notable innovations in filmmaking technique are his use of special effects in cinematography. For 2001: A Space Odyssey, he made innovative uses of both slit-scan photography and front-screen projection. Previously used to create image distortions or blurriness, slit-scan was used by Kubrick to create sophisticated animation for the StarGate sequence. This earned Kubrick his only personal Oscar, awarded for special effects. Although front projection had been used earlier, Space Odyssey was its first use on a large scale, and Kubrick employed a specially built 8×10 projector for the Dawn of Man sequence, as he did not believe that matting or rear-projection would create a sufficiently realistic effect.[156]

Kubrick also made innovative use of Zeiss camera lenses for photographing scenes lit only by actual candlelight in Barry Lyndon. In an interview with Michel Ciment,[157] Kubrick relates how he felt that most films containing candle-lit scenes look phony, due to the artificial light flickering off-camera. Kubrick wanted the more authentic look of 19th-century paintings.

Kubrick was also among the first to use the then-revolutionary Steadicam in The Shining to allow smooth stabilized tracking with the camera in motion, without the use of a dolly limiting the camera’s point of view.[158][159] The inventor of the Steadicam, Garrett Brown, became heavily involved with the production, as he believed The Shining was the first film to fully realize the Steadicam’s full potential, going well beyond „stunt shots and staircases“.

After Kubrick, the use of slit-scan to create animation effects was employed in the credits sequence to Doctor Who.[160] Front-screen projection has been used in James Bond and Superman films, and the Steadicam has been employed in Star Wars films.

[edit]Industry response

Leading directors, including Martin ScorseseSteven SpielbergJames CameronWoody AllenTerry Gilliam, the Coen brothersRidley Scott, and George A. Romero,[161] have cited Kubrick as a source of inspiration, and in the case of Spielberg, collaboration.[162][163] On the DVD of Eyes Wide Shut, Steven Spielberg, in an interview, comments on Kubrick that „nobody could shoot a picture better in history“ but the way that Kubrick „tells a story is antithetical to the way we are accustomed to receiving stories“. Writing in the introduction to a recent edition of Michel Ciment’s Kubrick, film director Martin Scorsese notes that most of Kubrick’s films were misunderstood and under-appreciated when first released. Then came a dawning recognition that they were masterful works unlike any other films. Perhaps most notably, Orson Welles, one of Kubrick’s greatest personal influences and all-time favorite directors, famously said that: “Among those whom I would call “younger generation” Kubrick appears to me to be a giant.”[164] Many directors have mentioned Kubrick as having made one of their favorite films: Richard Linklater,[165] Sam Mendes,[166] Joel Schumacher,[167] Taylor Hackford.[168] and Darren Aronofsky.[169]

Kubrick continues to be cited as a major influence by many directors, including Christopher Nolan,[170] David Fincher,[171] Guillermo del Toro,[172] David Lynch,[173] Lars Von Trier,[174] Michael Mann,[175] and Gaspar Noé.[176] Many filmmakers imitate Kubrick’s inventive and unique use of camera movement and framing. For example, several of Jonathan Glazer’s music videos contain visual references to Kubrick.[177] The Coen Brother’s Barton Fink, in which the hotel itself seems malevolent,[178] contains a hotel hallway Steadicam shot as an homage to The Shining. The storytelling style of their Hudsucker Proxy was influenced by Dr. Strangelove.[179] Director Tim Burton has included a few visual homages to Kubrick in his work, notably using actual footage from 2001: A Space Odyssey in Charlie and the Chocolate Factory,[180] and modeling the look of Tweedledee and Tweedledum in his version of Alice in Wonderland on the Grady girls in The Shining.[181] Film critic Roger Ebert also noted that Burton’s Mars Attacks! was partially inspired by Dr. Strangelove.[182] Burton’s only music video, that of The Killers‚ Bones (2006), includes clips from Kubrick’s Lolita, as well as other films from the general era.

Paul Thomas Anderson (who was fond of Kubrick as a teenager)[183] in an interview with Entertainment Weekly, stated „it’s so hard to do anything that doesn’t owe some kind of debt to what Stanley Kubrick did with music in movies. Inevitably, you’re going to end up doing something that he’s probably already done before. It can all seem like we’re falling behind whatever he came up with.“[184] Reviewer William Arnold described Anderson’s There Will Be Blood as being stylistically an homage to Kubrick „particularly „2001: A Space Odyssey“ – opening with a similar prologue that jumps in stages over the years and using a soundtrack throughout that employs anachronistic music.“[185]

Although Michael Moore specializes in documentary filmmaking, at the beginning of shooting his only non-documentary feature film Canadian Bacon, he sat his cast and crew down to watch Stanley Kubrick’s Dr. Strangelove. He told them „What this movie was in the ’60s, is what we should aspire to with this film.“ Moore had previously written Kubrick a letter telling him how much Bacon was inspired by Strangelove.[186]

Film director Frank Darabont has been inspired by Kubrick’s use of music. In an interview with The Telegraph, he states that 2001 took „the use of music in film“ to absolute perfection, and one shot employing classical music in The Shawshank Redemption follows Kubrick’s lead. On the other hand, while Darabont has followed Kubrick in directing two Stephen King adaptations, Darabont shares Stephen King’s negative view of Kubrick’s adaption of The Shining. In the same interview, Darabont said

It completely misses the human element. Kubrick’s work on screen tends to be the eye of a scientist examining humanity as if it were a paramecium under a microscope. Sometimes that worked brilliantly, and sometimes it took a really good book like The Shining and totally fucked it up. It’s an utter failure as an adaptation of great material. However, it doesn’t take away from his extraordinary achievements in his other films. And I think that 2001 is his crown jewel.“[187]

Critics occasionally detect a Kubrickian influence when the actual filmmaker acknowledges none. Critics have noticed the influence of Stanley Kubrick on Danish independent director Nicolas Winding Refn. Jim Pappas suggests this comes from his employment of Kubrick’s cinematographer for The Shining and Barry Lyndon in his film Fear X, suggesting „it is the Kubrick influence that leaves us asking ourselves what we believe we should know is true“.[188] The apparent influence of Kubrick on his film Bronson was noted by the Los Angeles Times[189]and the French publication Evene[190] However, when asked by Twitch about the very frequent comparisons by critics of the film Bronson to A Clockwork Orange, Refn denied the influence.[191] Refn stated

Of course if you put violence with classical music, people think it’s obvious that’s Clockwork Orange, because Kubrick used it very well and you always look at it as a reference. There are similarities between my Bronson and the Alex character fromClockwork Orange. There is kind of anti-authoritarian popculture iconish quality, but I stole every single thing from Kenneth Anger.Bronson is a mixture of [Anger’s] Inauguration of the Pleasure Dome (1954) and Scorpio Rising (1964).

Some filmmakers have been critical of Kubrick’s work, such as those of the remodernist film movement; Jesse Richards described Kubrick’s work as „boring and dishonest“.[192] Peter Rinaldi, in his essay on the Remodernist Film Manifesto for Mungbeing, The Shore as Seen from the Deep Sea, defends the manifesto, writing:

I certainly don’t share in my friend’s opinion of this man’s work, but I actually think this is a hugely important part of the manifesto. A lot of us came to be filmmakers because a particular director’s (or a number of directors) work inspired us. A friend of mine calls these inspirational figures his „Giants“, which I think is a great word for them because sometimes they are built up so much in our minds that we don’t think we, or our work, can ever really reach them and theirs. I think, for the most part, the generation that I grew up in had Kubrick as their Giant. His work has a mystical „perfectionism“ that is awe-inspiring at times. This perfectionism is anathema to the Remodernist mentality and for many healthy reasons, this giant (or whatever giant towers over your work) must fall in our minds. We must become the giant.[193]

Actor Robert Duvall (who never worked for Kubrick) stated on the fifth in The Hollywood Reporter’s roundtable series in 2010 that he thought Kubrick’s knack for an unusually high number of takes (often over 50) made him an „actor’s enemy“. He stated that both A Clockwork Orangeand The Shining were „great movies“ but contained „the worst performances he had ever seen in movies“.[194] On the other hand, Nicole Kidman (who co-starred in Kubrick’s Eyes Wide Shut) held that the value of Kubrick’s enormous number of takes was that actors stopped consciously thinking about acting technique and went to a deeper place. She stated „He believed that what it does to you, as an actor, was that you would lose control of your sense of self, of the part of you that was internally watching your own performance. Eventually, he felt, you would stop censoring yourself.“[195]

[edit]Homages

In 2001, a number of persons who worked with Kubrick on his films created the documentary Stanley Kubrick: A Life in Pictures, released by Warner Bros. It was produced and directed by Kubrick’s brother-in-law, Jan Harlan, who had also been executive producer of Kubrick’s last four films. The camera and sound for the documentary was managed by his son, Manuel Harlan, who was also the still photographer for Eyes Wide Shut and video operator for Full Metal Jacket.[196]

In 2000, BAFTA renamed their Britannia award the Stanley Kubrick Britannia Award. Kubrick is among filmmakers such as GriffithOlivier(whom Kubrick directed in Spartacus), Cecil B. DeMille, and Irving Thalberg, all of whom have had annual awards named after them. Kubrick won this award in 1999, one year prior to its being renamed in his honor.

Analysts of the TV series The Simpsons argue it contains more references to Kubrick films than any other pop culture phenomenon. References abound not only to 2001A Clockwork Orange, and The Shining but also to SpartacusDr. StrangeloveLolita, and Full Metal Jacket. It has been noted that while references to „fantastic fiction“ in The Simpsons are copious, „there are two masters of the genre whose impact on The Simpsons supersedes that of all others: Stanley Kubrick and Edgar Allan Poe.“[197] Similarly, it has been observed that „…the show’s almost obsessive references to the films of Stanley Kubrick…[make it] as if the show’s admittance of these films into the show’s pantheon of intertextual allusions finally marked their entry into the deepest subconscious level of the global pop cultural mind.[198] When theDirector’s Guild of Great Britain gave Kubrick a lifetime achievement award, they included a cut-together sequence of all the homages from the show.[199]

In 2009 there was an exhibition of paintings and photos inspired by Kubrick’s films in Dublin, Ireland, entitled ‚Stanley Kubrick: Taming Light‘. It was displayed at the Lighthouse Cinema, Dublin from October 1 to 31.[200] The same year, online toymaker „quartertofour“ released a version of Rubik’s Cube with prints of photos from six of Kubrick’s films on the side of the cube.[201] (This is not to be confused with the online game Kubrick with computer images of Rubik’s Cube which has no connection with Stanley Kubrick.) In 2010, painter Carlos Ramos held an exhibition entitled „Kubrick“ at the Copro gallery in Los Angeles. It featured paintings in a variety of styles based on scenes from Stanley Kubrick films.[202]

The video for pop singer Lady Gaga’s song Bad Romance was found by Daniel Kreps of Rolling Stone magazine to be heavily influenced by the filmmaking style of Kubrick.[203] Lady Gaga has also employed a hip-hop remix of the electronic version of Purcell’s music that opens the film Clockwork Orange in her concerts and in her mini-movie The Fame. Finally, her song Dance in the Dark has the lines „Find your Jesus, Find your Kubrick“.

[edit]Studies of Kubrick

At least two full-length books on Stanley Kubrick are devoted to frame-by-frame analyses of his visual style: Stanley Kubrick, Director: A Visual Analysis by Alexander Walker, and Stanley Kubrick: Visual Poet 1928–1999 (Basic Film) by Paul Duncan. History professor Geoffrey Cocks notes that Kubrick has what he calls an „open narrative“ style that „requires the audience to derive meaning actively rather than being passively instructed, entertained, and manipulated.“[204] On the other hand, Cocks believes that Kubrick’s preoccupation with sweeping overarching historical themes causes him to frequently sacrifice character development. „His films consistently display a basic taxonomy of violence, systems of control, and inherent human evil. This idée fixe freezes the people in his films into types rather than fully developed characters.“[205]

[edit]Alternative adaptations

Three of Stanley Kubrick’s films have had their source material re-adapted in some fashion: Anthony Burgess’s stage adaptation of A Clockwork Orange in 1990, which he hoped would be considered a more definitive adaptation than Kubrick’s film;[206] the television miniseriesof The Shining, written and produced by Stephen King which King hoped would stand as the authorized adaptation; and Adrian Lyne’s adaptation of Lolita, which had the blessing of Vladimir Nabokov’s son, Dmitri (who echoed his father’s moderate misgivings about Kubrick’s version).[207][208] Both Burgess and King stated that they were annoyed by Kubrick’s denying their lead characters (Alex DeLarge and Jack Torrance, respectively) a final redemption that was present in the source material.

[edit]Portrayal in film

Kubrick was portrayed by Stanley Tucci in the 2004 film The Life and Death of Peter Sellers. Sellers appeared in two Kubrick films, but the material with Kubrick in this film is focused on Sellers‘ appearance in Dr. Strangelove.

[edit]Hoaxes, parodies and conspiracy theories involving Kubrick

In the early 1990s, a con artist named Alan Conway frequented the London entertainment scene claiming to be Stanley Kubrick, and temporarily deceived New York Times theatre critic Frank Rich. Kubrick’s personal assistant, Anthony Frewin, helped track Conway down and wrote the screenplay for the film Colour Me Kubrick based on the Conway affair.

In 2002, with the cooperation of Kubrick’s surviving family, the French film maker William Karel (after initially planning a straight documentary on Stanley Kubrick) directed a hoax mockumentary about Kubrick and the NASA moon landing entitled Dark Side of the Moon. The film purported to demonstrate that the NASA moon landings had been faked and that the moon landing footage had been directed by Stanley Kubrick during the production of 2001: A Space Odyssey. In spite of clues that the film is a news parody, some test audiences believed the film to be sincere, including at least one believer in the moon landing conspiracy.

An earlier 1995 tongue-in-cheek article promoted essentially the same mock hoax about Kubrick, and was also deemed sincere by some readers. Originally posted on the Usenet humor news group ‚alt.humor.best-of-usenet‘, it was later reproduced in venues not devoted to parody. [209]

An entirely sincere documentary film making the same claim as Karel’s parodic „mockumentary“ was self-released on DVD in 2011 by conspiracy theorist and occultist Jay Weidner entitled Kubrick’s Odyssey: Secrets Hidden in the Films of Stanley Kubrick; Part One: Kubrick and Apollo. The science magazine Discovery reviewed an earlier article by Weidner on which his film was based as „bunk“ but „oddly compelling“ and „strangely fascinating“.[210]

A second recurring conspiracy theory surrounding Stanley Kubrick is that he was a secret member of a massive Freemason-Illuminati organization and hid clues of its existence in many of his films. Theorists claim Kubrick disclosed too much in Eyes Wide Shut and was subsequently assassinated. Cracked.com listed this as #1 in their list of 5 Absurd (But Mind Blowing) Pop Culture Conspiracy Theories.[211]Although the book The Complete Idiot’s Guide to the New World Order claims to be skeptical of the actual conspiracy theories, it takes at face value the claim that Masonic symbolism is woven into Eyes Wide Shut.[212]

[edit]Filmography

[edit]Documentary short films

As director, writer, cinematographer, and sound

Day of the Fight was part of RKO-Pathé’s „This Is America“ series. The Flying Padre was an RKO-Pathe Screenliner. The Seafarers andSpartacus were Kubrick’s only color films prior to 2001: A Space Odyssey.

[edit]Feature films

Year Film Director Producer Screenplay
(in part or whole)
Editor Cinematographer
1953 Fear and Desire No No No No
1955 Killer’s Kiss No No No No No
1956 The Killing No No
1957 Paths of Glory No No1 No No1
1960 Spartacus No
1962 Lolita No No1
1964 Dr. Strangelove No No No
1968 2001: A Space Odyssey No No No
1971 A Clockwork Orange No No No
1975 Barry Lyndon No No No
1980 The Shining No No No
1987 Full Metal Jacket No No No
1999 Eyes Wide Shut No No No No1

1 Uncredited

Stanley Kubrick was responsible for the underlying concept of Steven Spielberg’s A.I.: Artificial Intelligence which was produced after his death, by his brother-in-law, Jan Harlan. Kubrick is thanked in the credits, but is not credited as writer. A new screenplay was written by Steven Spielberg based on a 90-page story treatment done in 1990 by Ian Watson which in turn had closely followed Kubrick’s stated directives. The film is based on a short story by Brian Aldiss.

[edit]Home video and screen size

With the exception of Space Odyssey, Kubrick had authorized only cropped and screen-fitted transfers of his films to videotape. When he died in 1999, Warner Home Video released these films with the transfers that Kubrick approved. In 2007, Warner Home Video remastered five of his later films in High-Definition, releasing the titles for the first time in widescreen format, preserving the theatrical screen ratios.

During the laserdisc era, The Criterion Collection released six earlier Kubrick films, but released only Spartacus and 2001 in widescreen, although others had been widescreen in theatres. Earlier DVD releases of The KillingPaths of Glory and Dr. Strangelove (whether by Criterion, MGM, or Sony) were standard 4:3 screen, while later releases were widescreen.

Earlier widescreen releases of 2001 were slightly cropped due to being transferred from a 35mm print, but this was corrected in the most recent DVD release.

[edit]Awards and nominations

All of Stanley Kubrick’s later films, except for The Shining, were nominated for Oscars or Golden Globes, in various categories. 2001: A Space Odyssey received numerous technical awards, including a BAFTA award for cinematographer Geoffrey Unsworth and an Academy Award for best visual effects, which Kubrick (as director of special effects on the film) received. This was Kubrick’s only personal Oscar win among 13 nominations. Nominations for his films were mostly in the areas of cinematography, art design, screenwriting, and music. Only four of his films were nominated by either an Oscar or Golden Globe for their acting performances, SpartacusLolitaDoctor Strangelove, and A Clockwork Orange.

Personal awards for Kubrick:

Year Title Awards (limited to Oscars, Golden Globes, BAFTAs and Razzies)
1953 Fear and Desire
1955 Killer’s Kiss
1956 The Killing Nominated for BAFTA Award: Best Film from Any Source
1957 Paths of Glory
1960 Spartacus Won Golden Globe: Best Drama Picture, Nominated Golden Globe: Best Director
Nominated for BAFTA Award: Best Film from Any Source
1962 Lolita Nominated for Oscar: Best Adapted Screenplay (Kubrick’s extensive work on this was uncredited- the nominee was Vladimir Nabokov)
Nominated for Golden Globes: Best Director
1964 Dr. Strangelove Nominated for Oscars: Best Director, Best Picture, Best Adapted Screenplay
Won BAFTA Awards: Best British Film, Best Film from any Source, Nominated BAFTA: Best British Screenplay (nomination shared with Peter George and Terry Southern)
1968 2001: A Space Odyssey Won Oscar : Best Special Effects
Nominated for Oscars: Best Director, Best Original Screenplay (nomination shared with Arthur C. Clarke)
Nominated for BAFTA: Best Film
1971 A Clockwork Orange Nominated for Oscars: Best Director, Best Picture, Best Adapted Screenplay
Nominated for Golden Globes: Best Director, Best Drama Picture
Nominated for BAFTA Awards: Best Direction, Best Film, Best Screenplay
Won 2 recognitions by The New York Film Critics: Best Director, Best Picture
1975 Barry Lyndon Nominated for Oscars : Best Director, Best Picture, Best Adapted Screenplay
Nominated for 2 Golden Globes: Best Director, Best Drama Picture
Won BAFTA Award: Best Direction Nominated: Best Film
1980 The Shining Nominated for Razzie: Worst Director
Nominated for Saturn: Best Direction
1987 Full Metal Jacket Nominated for Oscar: Best Adapted Screenplay (nomination shared with Michael Herr, Gustav Hasford)
1999 Eyes Wide Shut

Kubrick received two awards from major film festivals: „Best Director“ from the Locarno International Film Festival in 1959 for Killer’s Kiss, and „Filmcritica Bastone Bianco Award“ at the Venice Film Festival in 1999 for Eyes Wide Shut. He also was nominated for the „Golden Lion“ of the Venice Film Festival in 1962 for Lolita. The Venice Film Festival awarded him the „Career Golden Lion“ in 1997. He received the D.W. Griffith Lifetime Achievement Award from the Directors Guild of America, and another life-achievement award from the Director’s Guild of Great Britain, and the Career Golden Lion from the Venice Film Festival. Posthumously, the Sitges – Catalonian International Film Festival awarded him the „Honorary Grand Prize“ for life achievement in 2008. He also received the coveted Hugo Award three time for his work in science fiction.[213]

In 1997, three of Kubrick’s films were selected by the American Film Institute for their list of the 100 Greatest Movies in America2001: A Space Odyssey at #22, Dr. Strangelove at No.26 and A Clockwork Orange at #46. In 2007, the AFI updated their list with 2001 ranked at #15, Dr. Strangelove ranked at No.39 and Clockwork Orange ranked at #70; Spartacus was one of the new selections, ranking at #81.

[edit]See also

[edit]Notes

  1. ^ Hall (no date). Online at: Kubrick, Stanley (1928–1999)
  2. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. Online at: Stanley Kubrick (American director)
  3. ^ Rice 2008.
  4. ^ Kael was fond of Kubrick’s early work up to and including Lolitabut consistently disparaged all his subsequent films.
  5. ^ Ankeny (no date). Online at: Stanley Kubrick: Biography
  6. ^ LoBrutto 1999, p. 6.
  7. ^ Louisa Buck (February 11, 2009). „Stanley Kubrick’s photographs brought to life by Jane and Louise Wilson“The Art Newspaper. Retrieved April 24, 2010.
  8. a b c d LoBrutto 1999, p. 524.
  9. a b c d e f g h i Cocks, Geoffrey. The wolf at the door: Stanley Kubrick, history, & the Holocaust, Peter Lang Publishing (2004) pp. 22–25, 30
  10. ^ „Unmade Stanley Kubrick: Aryan Papers“, Empire Online
  11. ^ Raphael, Frederic. Eyes Wide Open: A Memoir of Stanley Kubrick, Ballantine, 1999 pp. 107–108
  12. ^ LoBrutto 1999, p. 24.
  13. ^ LoBrutto 1999, p. 19.
  14. ^ Schwam 2000, p. 70.
  15. ^ LoBrutto 1999, p. 23.
  16. ^ LoBrutto 1999, p. 15.
  17. ^ LoBrutto 1999, p. 33.
  18. ^ Baxter 1999, p. 32.
  19. a b c d Ciment, Michel. Kubrick: The Definitive Edition, Faber and Faber, Inc. (1980; 1999)p. 36
  20. ^ Paul 2003, pp. 25, 46, 62. Online: Google Books link
  21. ^ Dunn 2006, p. 84. Online: Google Books link
  22. ^ Jeremy Bernstein, Interview With Stanley Kubrick, 1966. Take 27, about 16 minutes into Tape 27 side A
  23. ^ Thuss 2002, p. 110. Online: Google Books link
  24. ^ Baxter 1997, p. 56. Online: Google Books link
  25. ^ Philips 2001, p. 190. Online: Google Books link
  26. ^ Philips 1999, p. 127. Online: Google Books link
  27. ^ Baxter 1999, p. 70.
  28. ^ Lucas (no date). Online at: 7 Classic Movies that Influenced Quentin Tarantino: Horror, Suspense, Film Noir – and Plenty of Laughs
  29. ^ Hughes, Howard (2006). Crime Wave: The Filmgoers‘ Guide to the Great Crime Movies. London: I.B.Tauris. p. 186.ISBN 1845112199, 9781845112196.
  30. ^ Sleeper 1997. Online at: la Fiction du Pulp: Tarantino’s trail of bread crumbs leads to the French New Wave
  31. ^ Online: Stanley Kubrick Exhibition. Newsletter no. 9, October 2004.
  32. ^ Roud 1980 p. 562. Online: Google Books link
  33. ^ Jackson et al 2001. Online: Google Books link
  34. a b Nelson 2000, p. 260. Online: Google Books link
  35. ^ See for example: Denby 2008. Online at: The First Casualty
  36. ^ Friedman, Lester, and Brent Notbohm, p. 82. Online: Google Books link
  37. ^ LoBrutto 1999, p. 164.
  38. ^ Haut 2002, p. 125.
  39. ^ Kubrick is not credited for the screenplay of Lolita but he heavily rewrote Nabokov’s script and took no credit simply for contractual reasons. See intro to Nabokov’s published version and Lolita: A Screenplay – Vladimir Nabokov
  40. ^ Cooper 1996. Online: Spartacus: Still Censored After All These Years
  41. ^ Harlan 2001. Online at: Stanley Kubrick: A Brief Overview; see also review of Spartacus: Spartacus (Criterion)
  42. a b Kagan 2000, p. 69.
  43. ^ Sperb 2006, p. 60.
  44. ^ Philips 2001, p. 102.
  45. ^ Cohan, Steven and Ina Rae Rark 1993, p. 170. Online: Google Books link
  46. ^ Abrams 2009, p. 170. Online: Google Books link
  47. ^ Southern, Terry 2002, p. 74. Online: Google Books link
  48. ^ Nelson, Thomas Allen (2000). Kubrick, inside a film artist’s maze (revised edition). Indiana University Press. p. 79.ISBN 0253213908, 9780253213907.
  49. ^ Bogdanovich 1999. Online: What They Say About Stanley Kubrick
  50. ^ Constantine Santas (September 2000). „Lolita – From Nabokov’s Novel (1955) to Kubrick’s Film (1962) to Lyne’s (1997)“. Senses of Cinema. Retrieved June 8, 2011.
  51. ^ IMDb. Online: Lolita (1962) – Taglines
  52. ^ Harris 2002. Online: Lolita at 40: Producer James B. Harris. The Five-0 Interview.
  53. ^ Kagan pp. 82, 83. „He couldn’t dramatize Humbert’s erotic relationship with the nymphet.“
  54. ^ Paul 2003, pp. 79–80. Online: Google Books link
  55. ^ LoBrutto 1997 p. 225. „he told Newsweek in 1972 in referring to the censorship restrictions.“
  56. ^ Aragay 2006, p 113. Online: Google Books link.
  57. ^ Coyle 1980, p. 46. Online: Google Books link.
  58. ^ Village Voice July 5, 1962 p. 11.
  59. ^ The Listener and BBC television review, Volume 68 (1962) p. 438.
  60. ^ Youngblood 2008. Online: Lolita
  61. ^ The other was R. Lee Ermey in Full Metal Jacket
  62. ^ Tulsa TV Memories. U.N.C.L.E., SAGE, SABRE, Strangelove & Tulsa: Connections
  63. ^ Roger Ebert (July 11, 1999). „Dr. Strangelove (1964)“.rogerebert.com. Retrieved August 14, 2011.
  64. ^ Lyon and Doll 1984, p. 126.
  65. ^ LoBrutto 1997 pp. 206, 239, 242.
  66. ^ Rolling Stone wrote an article about the film’s popularity with the Woodstock counter-culture in late 1968
  67. ^ Renata Adler of the New York Times called it „somewhere between hypnotic and immensely boring“ and Pauline Kael inThe New Yorker called it „monumentally unimaginative“and „a disaster because it is much too abstract to make its abstract points“. Her review is anthologized in her collection For Keeps. John Simon called in „a shaggy god story“ in New Leader
  68. ^ Gilliatt 1968. Online: After Man [review of 2001: A Space Odyssey]
  69. ^ American Film Institute. Online: AFI’s 10 Top 10
  70. ^ For example this essay at the US Centennial of Flight Commission
  71. ^ Carr 2002, p. 1.
  72. ^ British Film Institute. Online at: BFI Critic’s Top Ten Poll.
  73. ^ Ciment 1982. Online at: Kubrick on A Clockwork Orange: An interview with Michel Ciment
  74. ^ Strick and Houston 1972. Online at: Interview with Stanley Kubrick regarding A Clockwork Orange
  75. ^ Ebert 1972. Online at: A Clockwork Orange
  76. a b Kael 1972. Online at: Stanley Strangelove
  77. ^ „A Clockwork Orange 40th Anniversary Screening With Malcolm McDowell“Salt Lake City Weekly. August 6, 2010. Retrieved November 24, 2011.
  78. ^ Aspect Press Release. Online at: Aspect delivers passion to Scala
  79. ^ Comstock 2007. Online: How “X-rated” became synonymous with “porn,” and the death of movie making for grown-ups.
  80. ^ Ed DiGiulio. „Two Special Lenses for „Barry Lyndon““. American Cinematographer. Retrieved March 5, 2011.
  81. ^ http://www.cahiersducinema.com/imprime.php3?id_article=1337[dead link]
  82. ^ Friedman, Lester, and Brent Notbohm 2000, p. 36.
  83. ^ Brown, G. (1980) The Steadicam and The Shining. American Cinematographer, August, 61 (8), pp. 786–9, 826–7, 850–4. Reproduced at The Kubrick Site without issue date or pages given
  84. ^ Webster, Patrick (2010). Love and Death in Kubrick: A Critical Study of the Films. McFarland. p. 221. ISBN 0786459166, 9780786459162.
  85. ^ Bianculli 1997. Online at: ‚The Shining,‘ By the Book
  86. a b c d e quoted in Lobrutto, p. 469-470
  87. ^ various. „Regarding Full Metal Jacket“. The Kubrick Site. Retrieved March 5, 2011.
  88. ^ The Kubrick Site. Online at: Regarding Full Metal Jacket: A Discussion
  89. ^ Ericson 2004. Online at: The measure of a man: Stanley Kubrick’s „Full Metal Jacket“
  90. a b c d e f Harlan, Jan (producer/director), Stanley Kubrick: A Life in Pictures, documentary film (2001)
  91. ^ Webster, Patrick. Love and Death in Kubrick: A Critical Study of the Films from Lolita Through Eyes Wide Shut, McFarland (2011)
  92. ^ Holden 1999. Online at: Stanley Kubrick, Film Director With a Bleak Vision, Dies at 70
  93. ^ „Remembering Stanley Kubrick: Steven Spielberg“. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
  94. ^ See interview in „Show“ magazine vol. 1, Number 1 1970
  95. ^ Ginna, Robert Emmett (1960). „The Odyssey Begins“.Entertainment Weekly.
  96. ^ Myers (no date). Online at: A.I.(review)
  97. ^ Variety 2001. Online at: A.I. Artificial Intelligence
  98. ^ „John WILLIAMS: A.I. Artificial Intelligence : Film Music CD Reviews- August 2001 MusicWeb(UK)“. Musicweb-international.com. Retrieved March 7, 2010.
  99. a b c Walker 2000, p. 14
  100. ^ Kubrick, Stanley, and Phillips Gene D. Stanley Kubrick: Interviews, Univ. Press of Mississippi (2001) p. 80
  101. ^ Wakeman, John (ed.) World Film Directors: 1890 – 1945, H. W. Wilson Co. (1987) pp. 677–683
  102. ^ Quentin Curtis (1996). „An enigma wrapped in a mystery wrapped in an anorak…“Daily Telegraph. UK. Retrieved January 21, 2011.
  103. ^ Herr, Michael (2001). Kubrick. Grove Press. p. 27.ISBN 0802138187, 9780802138187.
  104. ^ Rasche, Hermann (2007). Processes of transposition: German literature and film. Rodopi. p. 75. ISBN 9042022841, 9789042022843.
  105. ^ „Road to the Stars“. Astronautix.com. Retrieved November 24, 2011.
  106. ^ „Road to the Stars – 1957 Soviet Space Vision with Stunning Special Effects“. Candlelight Stories. January 19, 2011. Retrieved November 24, 2011.
  107. ^ „Klushantsev: Russia’s Wizard of Fantastika“. American cinematographer (ASC Holding Corp) 75. 1994.
  108. ^ excerpted in Entertainment Weekly Robert Emmett Ginna (Apr 9, 1999). „Stanley Kubrick speaks for himself“Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved January 21, 2011.
  109. ^ Lynch on Lynch, a book of interviews with Lynch, conducted, edited, and introduced by filmmaker Chris Rodley (Faber & Faber Ltd., 1997, ISBN 978-0-571-19548-0; revised edition published by Farrar Straus & Giroux, 2005, ISBN 978-0-571-22018-2). p.77
  110. ^ Ciment, Michel. Kubrick: The Definitive Edition. (Faber & Faber, 2003. ISBN 978-0-571-21108-1) p. 308
  111. ^ Philips 2001, p. 199.
  112. a b Baxter 1999, p. 40.
  113. ^ For discussion of Kubrick’s method of multiple takes seeLobrutto 1997, pp. 398, 423–31, 440–446. Page 398: „Kubrick continued to work in a directorial style that included running up a lot of takes on a single setup— a philosophy that embraced the theory that film stock is the cheapest part of making a film.“
  114. ^ Jenkins, Greg (1997). Stanley Kubrick and the art of adaptation: three novels, three films. McFarland. p. 40. ISBN 0786402814, 9780786402816.
  115. ^ Macmillan International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers, vol. 1, p. 126
  116. ^ Browning, Mark (2009). Stephen King on the big screen. Intellect Books. p. 199. ISBN 1841502456, 9781841502458.
  117. ^ Jenkins p. 128
  118. ^ „Rainer J. Kaus, ‚Notes on Eyes Wide Shut'“. Clas.ufl.edu. Retrieved November 24, 2011.
  119. ^ Rasmussen, Randy (2005). Stanley Kubrick: Seven Films AnalyzedMcFarland & Company. p. 331. ISBN 0-7864-2152-5.
  120. ^ Jenkins, Greg (1997). Stanley Kubrick and the Art of Adaptation. McFarland & Co.. pp. 150–161. ISBN 978-0-7864-0281-6.
  121. ^ Terry Southern for Doctor Strangelove, Arthur C. Clarke for 2001, and Diane Johnson for The Shining
  122. ^ Film review: Special, Issues 25–35, Visual Imagination Ltd., 1999 page 42
  123. a b Michael Watt (July 2000). „Do You Speak Christian?“. Bright Lights Film Journal, Issue 29. Retrieved June 8, 2011.
  124. ^ A Clockwork Orange and The Shining. CO’s Walter Carlos and Shining’s Wendy Carlos are one and the same.
  125. ^ The closing scenes or credits of Dr. StrangeloveA Clockwork OrangeThe Shining, and Full Metal Jacket all employ jolly music in an ironic way in their closing credits or final scenes. However, although the closing scenes of Full Metal Jacket have the soldiers singing the Mickey Mouse song, the closing credits use The Rolling Stones‘ song Paint It Black.
  126. ^ Ebert 1987. Online at: Full Metal Jacket (review)
  127. ^ „The Theory Of The Gaze in Stanley Kubrick – MA thesis“. Retrieved November 24, 2011.
  128. ^ Morgan 2002. Online at: Stanley Kubrick: An Indoor-Plumbing Luddite; same article at The Kubrick Corner
  129. ^ Stephanie Morgan’s above-cited article on Kubrick’s recurring bathroom references states Floyd’s encounter is the onlybathroom reference in 2001. On the other hand Patrick Webster’s book Love and Death in Kubrick notes both occurrences on p. 49, as does Jerome Agel’s book The Making of 2001
  130. ^ Falsetto, Mario (2001). Stanley Kubrick: a narrative and stylistic analysis. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 40. ISBN 0275969746, 9780275969745.
  131. ^ Se Question 18 of the Kubrick FAQ at The Kubrick Site. Also noted in scholarly paper Stanley Kubrick: The Odysseys by Fabrice Jaumont given at a Université Charles de Gaulle Conference in 1995. English translation online
  132. ^ Leanard Bernstein’s 1973 Norton Lectures on Poetry [Harvard Univ. Press: 1976], pp. 384–9.
  133. ^ See Stanley Kubrick: A Narrative and Stylistic Analysis by Mario Falsetto and University of the Arts London – The Stanley Kubrick Archive arrives at University of the Arts London
  134. ^ This is discussed in Rasmussen Stanley Kubrick: Seven Films Analyzed, Ciment’s Kubrick Altman’s A Cinema of Loneliness and Nelson’s Kubrick: Inside a Film Artist’s Maze
  135. ^ See especially Nelson again and Jason Sperb The Kubrick Facade
  136. ^ See for example neurologist Gordon Bank’s 1990 article „Kubrick’s Psychopaths“ reprinted at Kubrick’s Psychopaths
  137. ^ Stoehr, Kevin (2006). Nihilism in film and television: a critical overview, Citizen Kane to The Sopranos. McFarland & Co.. p. 216.ISBN 0786425474, 9780786425471.
  138. ^ A.I.: Artificial Intelligence | film reviews. musicOMH (August 27, 2009). Retrieved on August 7, 2010.
  139. ^ pp. 199 & 490
  140. ^ quoted in The Cinema of Stanley Kubrick by Norman Kagan
  141. ^ A life spent chafing moguls and movie stars. NJ.com (November 3, 2007). Retrieved on August 7, 2010.
  142. ^ quoted in Thomas Doherty’s review of same in The Chronicle of Higher Eductation August 3, 2007
  143. ^ James Naremore On Kubrick, British Film Institute, 2007 ISBN 978-1-84457-142-0
  144. ^ „See question 37“. Visual-memory.co.uk. February 22, 2002. Retrieved November 24, 2011.
  145. ^ notably by film scholar Jason Sperb in a review on his online blog subsequently deleted. Sperb’s book The Kubrick Facade is briefly discussed in Rice’s book in a manner which Sperb regards as a total misinterpretation
  146. ^ „Stanley Kubrick“. Scifistation.com. Retrieved March 7, 2010.
  147. ^ The Kubrick Site: Kubrick’s comments regarding ‚A Clockwork Orange‘. Visual-memory.co.uk. Retrieved on August 7, 2010.
  148. ^ Andrew Pulver (August 11, 2010). „Photographer Dmitri Kasterine’s best shot“. London: UK Guardian. Retrieved August 8, 2011.
  149. ^ „National Portrait Gallery:Photographs by Dmitri Kasterine“. National Portrait Gallery. September 11, 2010. Retrieved August 8, 2011.
  150. a b „Twentiety Century Portraits: Photographs by Dmitri Kasterine“, National Portrait Gallery, London, U.K.
  151. ^ Geoffrey Cocks; James Diedrick; Glenn Wesley Perusek (2006).„Writing The Shining“Depth of field: Stanley Kubrick, film, and the uses of history. Univ of Wisconsin Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-299-21614-6. Retrieved August 21, 2011.
  152. a b Mark Steensland. „The Terror Trap“The Shining Adapted. Retrieved August 21, 2011.
  153. ^ Terrance Gelenter, Diane Johnson (Feb 21, 2009). Novelist Diane Johnson hosted by Terrance. Youtube. Retrieved August 22, 2011.
  154. ^ „Christiane Kubrick’s Website“. Eyeswideshut.warnerbros.com. Retrieved November 24, 2011.
  155. ^ Stuart 2007. Online at: A Hell of an Experience[dead link]
  156. ^ The technique is discussed in detail in an article in American Cinematographer.
  157. ^ Ciment Kubrick
  158. ^ Serena Ferrara, Steadicam: Techniques and Aesthetics (Oxford: Focal Press, 2000), 26–31.
  159. ^ Brown, G. (1980) The Steadicam and The Shining. American Cinematographer, August, 61 (8), pp. 786–9, 826–7, 850–4. Reproduced at The Kubrick Site without issue date or pages given
  160. ^ „Doctor Who: Evolution of a Title Sequence“. Bbc.co.uk. August 20, 1963. Retrieved November 24, 2011.
  161. ^ „Romero, George A. (post-Land of the Dead)“.
  162. ^ See Harlan 2001 for interviews with Scorsese and Spielberg.
  163. ^ See Greenwald 2007 for an interview with Scott.
  164. ^ LoBrutto, Vincent (May 7, 1999). Stanley Kubrick: A Biography. Retrieved November 24, 2011.
  165. ^ „BFI“.
  166. ^ „BFI“.
  167. ^ „BFI“.
  168. ^ „BFI“.
  169. ^ Trevor Hogg. „Visual Linguist: A Darren Aronofsky Profile (Part 1)“. flickeringmyth.com. Retrieved March 20, 2011.
  170. ^ Biography for Christopher Nolan at the Internet Movie Database
  171. ^ Biography for David Fincher at the Internet Movie Database
  172. ^ Biography for Guillermo del Toro at the Internet Movie Database
  173. ^ Biography for David Lynch at the Internet Movie Database
  174. ^ „Films that inspired directors“.
  175. ^ „A Mann’s Man World Page 2 – News – Los Angeles – LA Weekly“.[dead link]
  176. ^ „Gaspar Noé Talks Digital Filmmaking, Stanley Kubrick, Wanting To Work With Kristen Stewart & The „Sentimental, Erotic“ Film He Wants To Make Next“.
  177. ^ Nicholas Sheffo. „The Work Of Jonathan Glazer (Directors Label/Volume Five)“. Fulvue DriveIn. Retrieved December 4, 2010.
  178. ^ „Movie Review: Naked Lunch and Barton Fink (1991)“. Horror Fanzine. February 17, 2010. Retrieved December 23, 2010.
  179. ^ Allen, William Rodney; Joel and Ethan Coen (2006). The Coen brothers: interviews. Univ. Press of Mississippi. p. 208.ISBN 1578068894, 9781578068890.
  180. ^ John Hartl (July 14, 2005). „‘Chocolate Factory’ is a tasty surprise“. MSNBC. Retrieved December 5, 2010.
  181. ^ Geoff Boucher (Feb. 10, 2010). „Tim Burton took a ‘Shining’ to Tweedledee and Tweedledum“Los Angeles TimesArchivedfrom the original on November 15, 2010. Retrieved February 17, 2011. Director Tim Burton erroneously refers to the Grady girls as twins.
  182. ^ „Mars Attacks! review – Roger Ebert“Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved June 5, 2011.
  183. ^ John H. Richardson (September 22, 2008). „The Secret History of Paul Thomas Anderson“. Esquire. Retrieved February 25, 2011.
  184. ^ Chris Willman (Nov 8, 2007). „There Will Be Music“.Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved February 25, 2011.
  185. ^ WILLIAM ARNOLD (January 3, 2008). „Daniel Day-Lewis is absolutely mesmerizing in There Will Be Blood. Seattle Pi. Retrieved February 25, 2011.
  186. ^ Dominic Griffin (Dec. 1995). „Moore the Merrier“. Film Threat magazine. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
  187. ^ Mark Monahan (25 May 2002). „Filmmakers on film: Frank Darabont“. London: The Telegraph. Retrieved 28 August 2011.; Darabont also echoes these criticisms
  188. ^ Jim Pappas (January 20, 2005). „Movie Review: Fear X“. The Trades. Retrieved June 24, 2011.
  189. ^ Mark Olsen (October 11, 2009). „‚Bronson‘ shows inner chaos of violent British prisoner“. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 24, 2011.
  190. ^ Anne-Claire Cieutat (March 2010). „INTERVIEW NICOLAS WINDING REFN“. Evene.fr. Retrieved June 24, 2011.
  191. ^ Paolo Gill (May 25, 2010). „A CONVERSATION WITH NICOLAS WINDING REFN“. Twitch Film. Retrieved June 24, 2011.
  192. ^ „Remodernist Film Manifesto“, When The Trees Were Still Real, August 27, 2008. Retrieved October 7, 2009.
  193. ^ „Remodernist Film“, MungBeing, October 4, 2009. Retrieved October 7, 2009.
  194. ^ „The Hollywood Reporter“. The Hollywood Reporter. November 17, 2011. Retrieved November 24, 2011.
  195. ^ „The Kubrick FAQ Part 4“. Visual-memory.co.uk. February 22, 2002. Retrieved November 24, 2011.
  196. ^ Manuel Harlan at the Internet Movie Database
  197. ^ Westfahl 2005, p. 1232.
  198. ^ Alberti 2003, p. 277.
  199. ^ „Kubrick and Homer (Simpson) alt.movies.kubrick“. Groups.google.com. Retrieved November 24, 2011.
  200. ^ Paul Lynch (September 27, 2009). „Stanley’s Rubric“. Sunday Tribune (Ireland). Retrieved March 21, 2011. The Sunday Tribune shut down its website in early 2011, and the website of this article appears to have been not archived by the Wayback Machine. The text of the article has been reproduced (without the painting reproductions) at a website for the exhibit
  201. ^ „Kubrick Rubik’s Cube is an Interesting Ode to Enigmatic Filmmaker“. walyou.com. October 1, 2009. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
  202. ^ Liz Ohanesian (Jul. 14, 2010). „Carlos Ramos Reinterprets Stanley Kubrick’s Greatest Film Moments“. L.A. Weekly. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
  203. ^ Kreps, Daniel (November 11, 2009). „Lady Gaga Premieres “Bad Romance,” Her Craziest Video Yet“. Rolling Stone (Jann Wenner) 1098 (32). ISSN 0035-791X
  204. ^ Cocks 2004, p. 6.
  205. ^ Cocks 2004, p. 11.
  206. ^ „Anthony Burgess from A Clockwork Orange: A play with music (Century Hutchinson Ltd, 1987)“. Home.wlv.ac.uk. Retrieved October 25, 2008.
  207. ^ Kobel 2001. Online at: Nabokov Won’t Be Nailed Down
  208. ^ „NABOKV-L Archives – September 1999 (#63)“. Listserv.ucsb.edu. Retrieved October 25, 2008.
  209. ^ The original article (with correct attribution) can be read at „www.clavius.org„, a website devoted to debunking moon landing hoax theories. Material on the webmaster of „clavius.org“ may be found at About this site and Imdb biography for Jay Windley
  210. ^ Robert Lamb (Jan 21, 2010). „FAKED MOON LANDINGS AND KUBRICK’S ‚THE SHINING'“. Discovery News. Retrieved September 6, 2011. The Discovery article is quoted on the film’s Amazon.com as a review of the film itself, although it is actually a review of an earlier article that was the basis for the film.
  211. ^ Quercia, Jacopo della (September 22, 2010). „5 Absurd (But Mind Blowing) Pop Culture Conspiracy Theories“. Cracked.com. Retrieved November 11, 2011.
  212. ^ Appendix B Axelrod, Alan (2010). The Complete Idiot’s Guide to the New World Order. Penguin. ISBN 1615640398, 9781615640393.
  213. ^ „The Hugo Awards: Search Results: Kubrick“. The Hugo Awards. Retrieved October 28, 2011.

[edit]References

[edit]Further reading

Documentary

[edit]External links

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